Slaget-Axe

Slaget-Axe

Kampøksen var det vigtigste våben, der blev brugt af kong Harolds huskarl i slaget ved Hastings. En kampøkse blev brugt i hånd-til-hånd-kampe eller kunne slynges som et missil. Træhåndtaget kan være så langt som 150 cm. Det halvmåneformede blad målte ca. 25 cm mellem det øvre og nedre punkt på dets brede skærekant. Kampsøksen var fremstillet af stål og var i stand til at afskære et lem eller et hoved i et slag. Under kamp blev øksen normalt svinget med begge hænder, og derfor var krigeren ikke i stand til at bære et skjold for at beskytte sig selv mod fjenden.


Kamp -øksen - Historie

The Augustan, bind. XI, nr. 2, marts-april 1968.

KONTINUITET AF AFGIFTER I EN GAMMEL KLANS ARMER

Af kaptajn R. Mingo Sweeney
Illus. af pastor Dom William W. Bayne, OSB, FAS

Suibhne er blevet oversat til mange variationer, dvs. Sween, MacSween, MacQueen, MacEwen i Scotlapd og Swiney, MacSwiney, Mac Sweeney, MacSwyny, MacSweyne og andre i Irland. Derudover ændrede rustningens lejer i denne klans Septs og høvdingens vedkommende sig betydeligt gennem århundrederne og fastholdt dog grundlæggende ladninger for vildsvin og kampøkse.

De originale og udifferentierede arme er ikke historisk verificeret, selvom de er blevet flammet af Burke i hans General Armory som eller (eller argent) tre orner passant sabel. Et segl blev brugt af Lords of Knapdale i 1200 -tallet, men der findes ingen kopi af dette.

De første officielt registrerede våben blev båret af en Murragh Mac Sweeney, hvis postering i Annals of the Four Masters lyder:
Murragh Mac Sweeney blev taget til fange i Umailia af Donnell, søn af Manus O'Conor, der afleverede ham til jarlen (de Burgh, jarl af Ulster), i hvis fængsel han døde.
Dette er dateret The Age of Christ 1267. Hans arme er registreret som følger: Mac Sweeney (Co. Donegal). Moragh Mac Sweeney, Chieftain 1267, Reg.Ulster's Office. Argent en løve i Chief og et vildsvin i basen passerer begge. gules.

Denne løveladning er usædvanlig og gentages, som vi skal se i armene båret af Rt. Ær. Peter Paul MacSwiney, overborgmester i Dublin, der brugte dette skjold som grundlag for udformningen af ​​hans Grant. Denne Morrogh havde en farverig historie, og familieannalerne nævner ham som "mester for kongen af ​​Skotland", som måske kan stå for den "rødlige" løve.

Fra en anden gren af ​​denne klan var en john de Sweyne kaptajn for Cinque Ports Fleet af Edward I, og hans far havde tætte forbindelser med Durham, hvorfra Balliols og Comyns havde landområder. john er også opført som havende landområder der, og mange år senere under et besøg af William Flowery, Norroy King of Arms (1575) blev der registreret et monument med følgende våben:
SWYNE: Argent en vildsvin sabel børstet eller. (Bemærk, at dette stort set er identisk med Morrogh uden løven i spidsen.)

Efter slaget ved Bannockburn (1314) blev familiens chef og seniorlinje etableret på Rathmullan Castle i Tyreconnell (nuværende Donegal). Denne chefs arme er registreret i Dublin Castle som: Eller, en fess vert anklaget for en krybdyrargent mellem tre vildsvin passant sabel. Ligheden mellem disse arme og dem, som Burke tidligere nævnte som de "udifferentierede" arme, kan bemærkes. Tilføjelsen af ​​den grønne fess og det hvide krybdyr er interessant. Min eneste tanke om dette er, at disse herrer i Fanad introducerede karmelitterne i Donegal og byggede et Priory for dem i Rathmullan. Så vidt jeg husker er et af symbolerne på Jomfru Maria en hvid kamæleon. kan dette være relevant?

Toppen af ​​seniorlinjen forstod Clan Neils, en arm i rustning med en kampøks i orden. Dette virker også underligt bortset fra en tradition om, at Clan Sween stammer fra Clan Neil. Men i Irland støttede de O'Donnell, længe O'Neils bitre fjender.

To Cadet Septs fra seniorhuset spredte sig hurtigt til andre dele af O'Donnells fyrstedømme-det af na d'Tuath (eller na Doe som engelsk oversat det) på Doe Castle nær Creeslough og Banagh-grenen ved Rathain Castle på den vestlige kyst . Disse to septer vedtog skjolde af lignende design, selvom forskellige tinkturer:

Na d'Tuatha: Azure, to orner, der er voldsomt stridende eller hovedsagelig to kampakser i saltire af den anden.

Banagh: Eller, to vildsvin, der strømmede stridende sabel, på en chef for de to andre kampakser i saltire af den første.

Den førstes kam er A demi-griffin eller, der i sin fingerfingerklø holder et krybdyr vert. Hovedet på sidstnævnte er en vildsvin.

Det er svært at vide, hvorfor disse to huse ændrede designet, bortset fra at Mac Sweeney blev kendt som "Clan of the Battle-Ax", og de kunne have ønsket, at denne ladning skulle stå mere fremtrædende på deres skjolde. Betegnelsen kom af to årsager: Battle-axen var klanens "værktøj til handel med den" som galloglas-krigere (se forfatterens "The Galloglass", The Augustan, X, vi, 261) og betegnelsen na d'Tuatha var distrikter) blev let forvekslet med na d'Tuatha (i distriktet) blev let forvekslet med na d'Tua (af slagøksen) En anden tanke er, at en høvding i na Tuatha blev adlet under dronning Elizabeth I's regeringstid, og dette ændrede design kan have været indført på det tidspunkt.

En gren af ​​House of Tuatha gik mod syd, hvor de blev højkonstabler til McCarthy Herr i Desmond, den mest fremtrædende gren centreret på Mashanaglass Castle. Denne gren har fortsat en differentieret version af Tuatha-armene: Per Pale gules og azurblå, hver anklaget for en vildsvin, der kæmper modstridende hermelin på en chef eller to kampakser i saltire argent. Krigen er En demi-griffin eller ladet med en fleur-de-lisable sabel, der i sin dexter-klo holder et krybdyr vert.

Det er indlysende, at tinkturen af ​​chefen overtræder heraldikens love. Som repræsentant for denne linje blev der oprettet en arvelig romersk markis, og farverne i Vatikanet overtræder også den samme regel (som det gjorde Kongeriget Jerusalem), der kunne søges en eller anden grund hertil.

Der er tidligere omtalt Peter Paul MacSwiney, overborgmester i Dublin. Hans arme var naturligvis baseret på dem fra den gamle Morrough, og er Argent, en fess azurblå ladet med to kampakser i saltire Eller mellem i hovedsagen en løvepassant gules og i basen en vildsvin passant sabel. Her har han indbragt alle anklager, familien kender, undtagen krybdyret, som han har med i toppen: En demi-griffin eller, der holder i sin fingerfærdige claw'a krybdyr vert. Derefter for at sikre, at han anklagede griffinen med krydsede kampaksler.

En gren af ​​House of Banagh blev højkonstabler til O'Conor Don og til Butlers, jarlene i Ormonde. Fra sidstnævnte stammer den krigeriske gren, der bosatte sig på Prince Edward Island, nu en provins i Canada. Deres arme følger seniorhuset Fanad i tinktur, selvom bøjningen vert er blevet erstattet af to flaunches vert ladet med antikke kroner, der repræsenterer de gamle gaelliske kongeriger Irland og Skotland. Til en kam bruger de en griffinvert, der holder en kampøkse (fra Fanad-armene igen), og krybdyret er forsvundet. Disse arme kan blazones Eller, tre orner i blek passant sable afslappet gæt, mellem to

Således ændrer våben sig gennem århundrederne, selv i den samme familie, men er stadig ens nok til at spore deres udvikling. Nogle af de her anførte grunde er baseret på sandsynlighedslovene, og andre hypoteser ville være meget velkomne.

Beskrivelsen af ​​armene illustreret heri er som følger:


Sween of Knapdale: Eller, tre vildsvin passant sabel.


Mac Sweeney Fanad: Eller, på en fess vert mellem tre vildsvin passant sabel, en firben argent.


Mac Sweeney Banagh: (Tuath) Eller, to orner, der strømmede stridende sabel, på en chef for de to andre kampakser i saltire af den første.


Moragh Mr Mac Sweeney (1267): Argent, en hovedløve og et vildsvin i basen begge passantgules.


Mac Sweeney na d'Tuatha (også kaptajn Daniel Gorm Mac Sweeney fra Donegal, 1638): Azure, to orner voldsomt stridende eller, i chef to kampakser i saltire af de sidste (eller).
Crest: En demi-griffin, der er voldsom eller holder i kløen en egentlig firben.

MacSwiney of Mashanaglass: Per bleg azurblå og gules anklaget for to orner mod-hermelin, voldsom stridende på en høvding eller to kampakser i saltire argent.


Crest (til højre): En demi-griffin, der hænger voldsomt fast eller holder en passende firben i sin finger, og ladet med en fleur-de-lis sabel. Overgået af en coronet af en markis.


Peter Paul MacSwiney: Argent på en fess azurblå mellem i hovedet en løvepassant gules og i basen en vildsvin passant sabel, to kampakser i saltire eller.
Crest: En demi-griffin segreant eller, der holder en firben korrekt, og ladet på brystet med to kampakser i saltire sable. Motto :. Tuagha tulaig abu.


Sweeney fra Bolger's Park Canada: Eller, tre vildsvin, sabel, sløvede gules, i bleg passant mellem to flaunches vert hver belastet med en antik krone af den første.
Crest: En demi-griffin vert, der holder i sin fingerfingerklø en ordentlig kampøkse. Motto: Clann na d'Tua Abu.


De arme, der er illustreret for biskoppen af ​​Kilmore (ovenfor) og ærkebiskoppen af ​​Toronto (nedenfor) er deres respektive bispedømmes.


Biskop Sweeney fra St. John valgte som sit skjold en skildring af jomfruen med et glorie af sever -stjerner. (under)


Arme af kaptajn Richard Patrick Fortier Mingo Sweeney, C.E.M., K.L.j., F.R.S.A., F.R.C.S. osv .:

Kvartalsvis, 1 og 4: Eller, tre vildsvin passant i pate sable slankede gules mellem to flaunches vert, hver ladet med en antik krone af lst, inden for en borduregules 2 og 3, kvartalsvis 1 og 4, Argent, seks estoilles gules 2 og 3, Gules, en løve voldsom eller (for Mingo).

Crest: En demi-griffin vert, der i sin fingerklo holder en slag-øks.


Indhold

Oprindelse Rediger

Battle Axe -kulturen opstod i den sydlige del af den skandinaviske halvø omkring 2800 f.Kr. Det var en udløber af Corded Ware-kulturen, som selv stort set var en udløber af Yamnaya-kulturen i den pontisk-kaspiske steppe. Moderne genetiske undersøgelser viser, at dets fremkomst blev ledsaget af store migrationer og genetisk forskydning. Battle Axe -kulturen absorberede oprindeligt landbrugets Funnelbeaker -kultur. [1]

Distribution Rediger

Koncentrationen af ​​Battle Axe -kulturen var i Skåne. Sider med Battle Axe -kulturen er fundet i kystområderne i det sydlige Skandinavien og det sydvestlige Finland. [2] Den umiddelbare kystlinje blev imidlertid besat af Pitted Ware -kulturen. [2] I 2300 f.Kr. havde Battle Axe -kulturen absorberet Pitted Ware -kulturen.

Gennem hele sin eksistens ser det ud til, at Battle Axe -kulturen har ekspanderet til kystnorge, ledsaget af dramatiske kulturelle ændringer. [2] Einar Østmo rapporterer steder om Battle Axe -kulturen inde i den norske polcirkel i Lofoten og så langt nord som den nuværende by Tromsø. [3]

Efterfølgere Rediger

Battle Axe -kulturen sluttede omkring 2300 f.Kr. Det blev til sidst efterfulgt af den nordiske bronzealder, der ser ud til at være en fusion af elementer fra Battle Axe -kulturen og Pitted Ware -kulturen. [4]

Begravelser Rediger

Battle Axe -kulturen er mest kendt for sine begravelser. Omkring 250 Battle Axe begravelser er fundet i Sverige. De er ganske forskellige fra dem, der findes i Danmarks Single Grave -kultur. [2]

I Battle Axe -kulturen blev de afdøde normalt placeret i en enkelt flad grav uden trille. Grave var typisk orienteret nord-syd, med kroppen i en bøjet position vendt mod øst. Mænd blev placeret på deres venstre side, mens kvinder blev placeret på deres højre side. Med hensyn til både genstande og placering er gravgodset ret standardiseret. Flintakser findes i både han- og hunbegravelser. Kampakser placeres med hanner tæt på hovedet. [2] Disse kampakser ser ud til at have været statussymboler, og det er fra dem, kulturen hedder. Omkring 3000 slagakser er fundet på steder fordelt over hele Skandinavien, men de er sparsomme i Norrland og Nordnorge. [ citat nødvendig ] De polerede flintakser fra Battle Axe -kulturen og Pitted Ware -kulturen sporer en fælles oprindelse i det sydvestlige Skåne og Danmark. Corded Ware -keramik var også almindelig gravgods i Battle Axe -begravelser. De blev normalt placeret nær hovedet eller fødderne. Andre gravvarer omfatter pilspidser, gevir af gevir, ravperler og polerede flintøkser og mejsler. Faunale rester fra begravelser omfatter kronhjort, får og ged. [2]

Et nyt aspekt blev givet til Battle Axe -kulturen i 1993, da a dødshus i Turinge, i Södermanland blev udgravet. Langs de engang stærkt tømrede vægge blev fundet rester af omkring tyve lerkar, seks arbejdsøkser og en kampøkse, som alle kom fra kulturens sidste periode. Der var også de kremerede rester af mindst seks mennesker. Det er det tidligste fund af kremering i Skandinavien, og det viser tætte kontakter med Centraleuropa. [ citat nødvendig ]

Forlig Rediger

Få bosættelser i Battle Axe -kulturen er blevet afdækket. De fleste af dem er placeret inde i landet, men nogle er placeret i kystområder. Battle Axe kulturbopladser er imidlertid ikke placeret direkte på kysten, som var temmelig besat af Pitted Ware -kulturen. [2] Mindre end 100 bosættelser kendes, og deres levninger er ubetydelige, da de ligger på løbende brugt landbrugsjord og er derfor blevet pløjet væk.

Arkæologiske rester af det sydlige Sverige afslører tætte rumlige forhold mellem huse og grave, hvilket indikerer, at gårde var centrale for social og økonomisk aktivitet i Battle Axe -kulturen. [2]

Keramik Rediger

Battle Axe -keramik er ofte fundet i bosættelser i Pitted Ware. Nogle bosættelser viser endda sammensmeltninger af keramikstilarterne i Battle Axe -kulturen og Pitted Ware -kulturen. Forholdet mellem de to kulturer er kontroversielt og ikke godt forstået. [2]

Kultur Rediger

Battle Axe -kulturens sociale system var markant anderledes end Funnelbeaker -kulturen, vist ved at Funnelbeaker -kulturen havde kollektive megalitiske grave, der hver indeholdt mange ofre, mens Battle Axe -kulturen havde individuelle grave med et enkelt offer hver . Individualisme ser ud til at have spillet en meget mere fremtrædende rolle i Battle Axe -kulturen end blandt dens forgængere. [2] [5]

Økonomi Rediger

Battle Axe -kulturen var baseret på de samme landbrugspraksis som den tidligere Funnelbeaker -kultur. [ citat nødvendig ] Battle Axe -kulturen ser ud til at have lagt vægt på kvægbesætning, hvilket forklarer kulturens tilsyneladende mobile karakter. [2] De ser også ud til at have handlet med befolkninger nordpå og byttet animalske produkter med materielle goder. [6]

Einar Østmo understreger, at Atlanterhavet og Nordsøens kystområder i Skandinavien og de omegn-baltiske områder [7] blev forenet af en kraftig maritim økonomi, der tillod en langt bredere geografisk spredning og en tættere kulturel enhed, end de indre kontinentale kulturer kunne nå. Han peger på antallet af bredt udbredte helleristninger, der er tildelt æraen, og som viser "tusinder" af skibe. For sådanne søfarende kulturer er havet en motorvej og ikke en skillevæg. [3]

Battle Axe-kulturen menes at have bragt indoeuropæiske sprog og indoeuropæisk kultur til det sydlige Skandinavien. Sammensmeltningen af ​​Battle Axe-kulturen med de indfødte landbrugs- og jæger-samlerkulturer i regionen affødte den nordiske bronzealder, som betragtes som de germanske folks forfædre civilisation. [8]

Battle Axe -menneskers fysiske type var forskellig fra den fysiske type af de foregående Funnelbeaker -folk i det sydlige Skandinavien. [9]

En genetisk undersøgelse offentliggjort i Natur i juni 2015 undersøgt resterne af en Battle Axe -mand begravet i Viby, Sverige ca. 2621-2472 f.Kr. [10] [11] Han viste sig at være bærer af faderens haplogruppe R1a1a1 og moderens haplogruppe K1a2a. [11] Folk fra yngre neolitikum og bronzealderkulturer i Skandinavien viste sig at være meget nært beslægtede mennesker i Corded Ware -kulturen, Bell Beaker -kulturen og Unetice -kulturen, som alle delte genetisk affinitet med Yamnaya -kulturen. Sintashta -kulturen og Andronovo -kulturen i Centralasien viste også tætte genetiske forbindelser til Corded Ware -kulturen. [12]

En genetisk undersøgelse offentliggjort i Naturkommunikation i januar 2018 undersøgte en mand begravet i Ölsund i det nordlige Sverige ca. 2570–2140. Selvom han blev begravet uden artefakter, blev han fundet tæt på et arkæologisk sted, der indeholdt både jæger-samler og artefakter fra Corded Ware. [13] Han viste sig at være bærer af faderens haplogruppe R1a1a1b og moderens haplogruppe U4c2a. [14] Det viste sig, at han genetisk lignede folk fra Battle Axe-kulturen og havde en stor mængde stepperelaterede aner. [15] [16] Faderens haplogruppe R1a1a1b viste sig også at være den fremherskende slægt blandt mænd med ledning og bronzealder i den østlige Østersø. [14]

En genetisk undersøgelse offentliggjort i Procedurer fra Royal Society B undersøgte resterne af 2 Battle Axe -personer begravet i Bergsgraven i det centrale Sverige. Hannen bar den faderlige haplogruppe R1a-Z283 og moderens haplogruppe U4c1a, mens hunnen bar den moderlige haplogruppe N1a1a1a1. [17] Haplogroup R1a er den mest almindelige faderlige haplogruppe blandt mænd fra andre kulturer i Corded Ware-horisonten, og er tidligere fundet blandt Eastern Hunter-Gatherers (EHG'er). Interessant nok er Yamnaya -kulturen på den anden side domineret af den faderlige haplogruppe R1b. [18] De to Battle Axe -personer, der blev undersøgt, viste sig at være nært beslægtede med folk fra andre dele af Corded Ware -horisonten. De var for det meste af Western Steppe Herder (WSH) afstamning, selvom de var let blandet med Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) og Early European Farmer (EEF). Blandingen ser ud til at have fundet sted ved parring af WSH -hanner med EEF- og WHG -hunner. Battle Axe -personernes herkomst var markant forskellig fra tidligere neolitiske befolkninger, hvilket tyder på stratificering blandt de kulturelle grupper. WSH -aner er ikke påvist blandt tidligere befolkninger i området. Resultaterne understøttede yderligere forestillingen om, at Battle Axe -kulturen opstod som følge af migration fra sydøst for Østersøen. [19] Undersøgelsen undersøgte også en hun begravet i en Funnelbeaker megalit i Öllsjö, Sverige c. 2860–2500 f.Kr., hvor området var en del af Battle Axe -kulturen. Hun bar moderens haplogruppe H6a1b3, [20] og viste sig at være tæt genetisk relateret til andre mennesker i Battle Axe -kulturen. [21] To individer begravet i den samme megalit under senneolitikum var ligeledes nært beslægtet med folk fra Corded Ware -kulturen. [21]

Malmström et al. (2020) undersøgte Pitted Ware -kulturindivider i Gotland. Flere af deres begravelser indeholdt typiske Battle Axe -artefakter. Ingen af ​​disse individer indeholdt imidlertid en blanding fra Battle Axe -kulturen, hvilket tyder på, at folk i de to kulturer interagerede uden indblanding. [22] Moderne nordeuropæere viste sig stadig at være tæt genetisk relateret til mennesker fra Battle Axe -kulturen. [23]


3. Kædepost

Kredit: DeAgostini/Getty Images

Barbariske stammer var undertiden kendt for at haste ind i kampen helt nøgne for at skræmme deres fjender, men de besad også en lang række skjolde og rustninger. Blandt de mest effektive var kædepost, som kan have været opfundet i Europa af galliskelterne i det tredje århundrede f.Kr. De fleste gallisk post havde form af en kortærmet skjorte eller vest lavet af et sammenlåsende net af små metalringe. Dette gav fleksibilitet og beskytter også bæreren mod at hugge slag med sværd og dolk, hvilket simpelthen ville kigge væk fra den hårde ydre overflade. Kædepost var ekstremt arbejdskrævende at lave en enkelt vest kunne indeholde titusinder af ringe, så den havde en tendens til at blive båret af barbariske høvdinge og aristokrater frem for soldater. Ikke desto mindre gjorde dens effektivitet i kamp det meget værdsat blandt romerne, der til sidst vedtog en lignende postskjorte kendt som “lorica hamata ” for deres legioner.


Bad Axe, Battle of

Dette landskabsmaleri af Samuel Marsden Brookes og Thomas H. Stevenson skildrer en bred opfattelse af sammenløbet af Bad Axe og Mississippi Rivers -stedet for det afsluttende slag ved Black Hawk -krigen i 1832. Se det originale kildedokument: WHI 2531

Slaget ved Bad Axe 1-2 august 1832 var det afsluttende slag i Black Hawk-krigen.

Efter at have holdt forfølgere tilbage i slaget ved Wisconsin Heights (placeret cirka 2,5 miles syd for den nuværende Sauk City, Wisconsin) førte chef Black Hawk sit folk over et ukendt og robust land mod Mississippi -floden. I mellemtiden advarede den amerikanske hær myndighederne ved Fort Crawford i Prairie du Chien.

Chief Black Hawk og hans tilhængere af Sauk, der nu er reduceret til omkring 400 sultende mænd, kvinder og børn, nåede Mississippi ved mundingen af ​​Bad Axe -floden den 1. august. De gik straks i gang med at lave tømmerflåder og kanoer. Omkring 1.300 amerikanske infanteri og milits var kun en dags rejse væk, og de måtte krydse nu eller blive fanget på flodens bredder.

Lige derefter ankom dampbåden "Warrior". Black Hawk gjorde sit tredje ærlige forsøg på at overgive sig [den første var ved Stillman's Run og den anden efter slaget ved Wisconsin Heights]. Besætningen og soldaterne på dampbåden mistanke om, at det var et trick, og de åbnede ild og dræbte 25 af Black Hawks krigere og kostede dem værdifuld tid.

Da natten faldt på det desperate band, var de uenige om, hvad de skulle gøre derefter. De fleste ville krydse Mississippi så hurtigt som muligt, men Black Hawk og Waubakeeshik ønskede at gå nordpå til fods og søge tilflugt blandt Ho-Chunk og Ojibwe.

På trods af hans ønske om at stå ved sit band ved Bad Axe, i sidste ende undslap Black Hawk, Wabokieshiek og deres familier til fods nordpå og gemte sig i nærheden af ​​moderne Tomah, Wisconsin. De blev der, indtil de blev opdaget af en Ho-Chunk-jæger, der hjalp dem med at overgive sig til de hvide dage efter massakren ved Bad Axe.

Tidligt den 2. august forsøgte den resterende Sauk at krydse Mississippi -floden. Amerikanske tropper, der var ankommet til bluffene natten over, angreb dem bagfra. Dampbåden "Warrior" vendte tilbage til stedet omkring kl. 10.00 og affyrede sin kanon. Krigere og de næsten sultede ikke-kombattanter-mænd, kvinder og børn-blev massivt massakreret på kysten, i vådområderne, og mens de forsøgte at svømme eller kano hen over Mississippi. De fleste af de få, der kom på tværs, blev jaget og dræbt af Sioux -krigere, der handlede efter anmodning fra amerikanske officerer.


Battle Axe Brand History/Information

Jeg vil gerne vide mere om Battle Axe Brand historie og produkter. Fra det lille, jeg ved, er der forbindelser til navnene JW Hickey & amp Sons, Hickey & amp Shouse og Souse & amp Hardin, som er stemplet på nogle af knivene. Der er også en ældre "Battle Axe Bestik Co." i blandingen. Hidtil har jeg fundet meget lidt omtale af nogen af ​​disse, men jeg har anskaffet et par af knivene, og de ser ud til at være af meget god kvalitet og design.Hvis du kan tilføje til min viden, ville jeg være taknemmelig.

Svar på denne diskussion

Jim-De var 2 forskellige virksomheder. Det ældre Battle Axe Bestik co. blev enten lavet til eller af A.R. Justice, (Alfred Rudolph Justice), en hardware-grossist fra Philadelphia omkring 1877-1937, der henvendte sig til bestik og forsølvning. Du kan finde eksempler på lommeknive samt bordservice af hans med Battle Axe -stempelet.

Det nyere Battle Axe Brand, cirka 1975-1990 blev brugt af en gruppe mænd, hvis speciale var import og amp, der solgte mindeknive af god kvalitet og et par produktionsknive. Disse var små batches i begrænset oplagskniv og normalt seriel. De ville komme med designet, og en fabrik i Solingen, Tyskland fremstillede dem. De menes at være fremstillet af Frederich Olbertz -fabrikken i Solingen. Knivene brugte 1095 kulstofstål og materialer af god kvalitet.

Tilsyneladende har forskellige medlemmer af gruppen designet og amp købt forskellige knive, derfor de mange forskellige navnesamarbejde på knivene.

J.W. Hickey fra Winston-Salem NC, Tommy Shouse i Winston-Salem og George Smith fra Hardin Wholesale, der senere blev partner i Blue Grass Bestik.

Tak for svaret. Takket være dig ved jeg mere i dag, end jeg vidste i går

I denne periode (1975-1990) ser det ud til, at der foregik meget kreativt arbejde i bestikverdenen. Bulldog og Fight'n Rooster producerede varer af høj kvalitet, fantastisk design og solgt i korte løb.

Battle Axe gjorde det samme, men de er ikke så velkendte. Da deres historie er ny, og nogle af hovedspillerne stadig er i nærheden, kan vi håbe på en historie og/eller et katalog en dag.

Jim-De var 2 forskellige virksomheder. Det ældre Battle Axe Bestik co. blev enten lavet til eller af A.R. Justice, (Alfred Rudolph Justice), en hardware-grossist fra Philadelphia omkring 1877-1937, der henvendte sig til bestik og forsølvning. Du kan finde eksempler på lommeknive samt bordservice af hans med Battle Axe -stempelet.

Det nyere Battle Axe Brand, cirka 1975-1990 blev brugt af en gruppe mænd, hvis speciale var import og amp, der solgte mindeknive af god kvalitet og et par produktionsknive. Disse var små batches i begrænset oplagskniv og normalt seriel. De ville komme med designet, og en fabrik i Solingen, Tyskland fremstillede dem. De menes at være fremstillet af Frederich Olbertz -fabrikken i Solingen. Knivene brugte 1095 kulstofstål og materialer af god kvalitet.

Tilsyneladende har forskellige medlemmer af gruppen designet og amp købt forskellige knive, derfor de mange forskellige navnesamarbejde på knivene.

J.W. Hickey fra Winston-Salem NC, Tommy Shouse i Winston-Salem og George Smith fra Hardin Wholesale, der senere blev partner i Blue Grass Bestik.

Jim-Funny du skal nævne Bulldog og Fight'n Rooster- Jeg har læst (ikke bekræftet), at alle tre mærker blev produceret på den samme fabrik i Solingen. Bernard Levine troede, at Frederich Olbertz lavede Battle Axe, så måske lavede de alle 3 mærker. Sterling Buster er et IKC -medlem og kan sandsynligvis bekræfte Fight'n Rooster -aspektet. Buzz Parker kunne sandsynligvis bekræfte Bulldog Brand -historien.


Det stadigt skiftende skæbne i det gamle Europa

Tiden er hensynsløs, når der er tale om historie. Det er let at skrive om en kulturs forsvinden og fremkomsten af ​​en anden. Men for folkene i den fjerne æra var tingene anderledes. Det var processer, der tog hundredvis af år at afslutte, og svagere, primitive folk blev ofte konfronteret med forsvinden og assimilering, hvilket aldrig er en behagelig ting. Men sådan var livsstilen i oldtiden, som var præget af massemigrationer af teknologisk avancerede folk, hvis innovationer og færdigheder ofte medførte en brat og dramatisk ændring i kulturer, der havde udviklet sig fredeligt i hundredvis af år. Og så var det, at den hurtige spredning af indoeuropæere medførte en ustoppelig forandring for det gamle Europa. De originale neolitiske kulturer måtte smelte sammen med angriberne, forsøge at modstå eller helt forsvinde. Og så blev fremtiden smedet og cementeret, et århundrede ad gangen.

Øverste billede: Der vides kun lidt om Nexithic Age Battle Axe -kulturen, men arkæologer og forskere fortsætter med at anvende nye teknologier for at sammensætte et mere komplet billede. (Billede, stenakser i Turov lokalhistoriske museum). Kilde: Grigory Bruev


Kamp -øksen - Historie

Af William McPeak

Den akslede øks har eksisteret siden 6000 f. Kr. I både fredelige og krigiske anvendelser. De såkaldte kampøkse-kulturer (3200 til 1800 f.Kr.) strakte sig over store dele af Nordeuropa fra slutningen af ​​stenalderen til den tidlige bronzealder. De første øksehoveder var lavet af sten og brugt i hånden et træhåndtag kendt som skaftet gjorde øksen lettere at bruge. Teknikker til håndtagfastgørelse inkluderede kilning, flangering, vingning og strømning. Socketing krævede at skaftet blev boret med et hul for at passe en formet sten gennem skaftet eller oven på det. Mange stenede mineraler blev brugt til hovedet, og kanten blev skærpet på begge sider og dobbeltfaset.
[tekst_ad]

Med opdagelsen af ​​metaller kom det forskellige arbejde med at rumme økser til krigsførelse. Fra temmelig stumpe ansigter i rektangulære former tog øksehovedet den velkendte, lidt konvekse forkant og tilspidsede tilbage til den afstumpede numse. Ved jernalderen (1000 f.Kr.) var det kileformede jernøksehoved standardformet, der blev boret tæt på numsen for at hive. For krigsførelse var kampøksen mest effektiv i et let design. Økser med dobbelte for- og bagkanter dukkede op i nogle gamle kulturer, men var realistisk set for tunge til reel effektivitet.

The Francisca: Battle-Axe of the Frankes

Det enkeltfasede kanthoved blev hurtigt udviklet. I modsætning til forgængeren til landbrugsredskaber var kampøksen beregnet til at skære kød, ikke træ. Romerske legionærer bar en standard pickax med en kort kant på et 19-tommer hoved og en 30-tommer haft. Ved det femte århundrede vendte en kampøkse med et smalt, kileformet hoved, normalt en flad bue eller S-formet overside med en temmelig flad, skrå konveks kant på cirka tre tommer tilbage ved hælen i en konkave feje kl. undersiden, optrådte i Nordeuropa i Frankernes hænder. Denne øks blev kaldt francisca (fra det latinske ord for Frank). Frankerne udgjorde det vesttyske forbund, der ville udvikle sig til et flerdelt rige under de merovingiske herskere og derefter et imperium under de karolingiske herskere i det syvende og ottende århundrede, især Karl den Store.

Franciscaen blev brugt både som et kastende og tæt kampvåben. Den romerske historiker Procopius beskrev dets anvendelse som et kastevåben af ​​frankerne: ”Hver mand bar et sværd og skjold og en øks. Nu var jernhovedet på dette våben tykt og overordentlig skarpt på begge sider, mens træhåndtaget var meget kort. Og de er vant til altid at kaste disse akser på et signal i den første ladning og dermed knuse fjendens skjolde og dræbe mændene. ” Procopius understregede, at frankerne kastede deres økser umiddelbart før hånd-til-hånd-kamp med det formål at bryde skjolde og forstyrre fjendens linje, mens de sårede eller dræbte fjendtlige krigere. Vægten af ​​hovedet og den korte længde af skaftet tillod øksen at blive kastet med betydelig momentum til et effektivt område på omkring 40 fod. Selvom bladets kant ikke ramte målet, kan jernhovedets vægt forårsage alvorlig personskade.

Et andet træk ved franciscaen var dens tendens til at hoppe uforudsigeligt ved at ramme jorden på grund af dens vægt, unikke hovedform, mangel på balance og let krumning af skaftet, hvilket gjorde det svært for forsvarerne at blokere. Det kunne rebound ved modstandernes ben eller mod deres skjolde og gennem rækken. Frankerne udnyttede dette ved at kaste franciscaen i volleys for at forvirre, skræmme og desorganisere fjendens linjer før eller under en ladning for at starte nærkamp.

The francisca, after undergoing changes of the length of edge, became popular with other Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons, and made its way farther north to become a basic template for the expeditionary Vikings. The Vikings extended the francisca ax edge downward a further inch, with the underside at the heel cutting briefly back horizontally and then turning up into a deep concave arc. Called the bearded ax, the weapon would undergo changes such as sweeping into an arc at the heel of the edge. Scandinavian smiths had been working iron-edged weapons, and they usually made the ax head of iron and forged the edge into steel to make it a superior cutting face.

The Norse Battle-Ax

Another Norse style of the ninth century returned to the full arc of convex edge, tapering both the top and undersides of the head backward in a concave sweep to the haft, sometimes known as the shaved ax. This was probably the earliest broadax form and enabled a more effective sweeping cut rather than a simple chop. Although there were variations, the broadax continued to be developed from a basic one- or two-pound weapon with a haft of about 1½ feet of ash or oak. This was the common form of the European single-hand battle-ax thereafter. The Anglo-Saxon invasions of the fifth century and Viking raids from the late eighth and ninth centuries brought these early forms of the battle-ax to Britain.

By ad 1000, the Danes were popularizing a shaved ax design with as much as 12 inches of curved blade but again with the inside edges deeply concave. This was the Danish ax, with a weight of as much as four pounds and requiring a longer haft of three or four feet for both hands. In 1066, the English met the Norman invaders near Hastings with their primary professional infantry wielding a Danish battle-ax called the English long ax, which was essentially an early poleax for two-hand use.

The Ax vs Armor

The progression of improvements in edged weapons followed the improvement in armor in general. By the late 14th century, plate armor of surface-hardened steel was so resilient that steel sword points and most concussion weapons grazed off its curved surfaces. Although defined as an impact or concussion weapon, the battle-ax had an advantage over others of its class, the war hammer and the various designs of the mace and flail. The battle-ax was also an edged weapon—a powerful one. The various lengths and arcing edges of its head could inflict some massive damage when striking well. The popularity of the Danish long ax came from the force of its sweeping and cutting blows. A horseman had even better striking ability.

A Viking-made bearded ax, circa ad 1000.

Although the sword still reigned as the knightly weapon, by the 12th century a variety of single-handed battle-axes were adopted by the noble class of Europe as a horseman’s weapon. Manuscript miniature paintings of the medieval period show many a battle-ax cleaving into the helmeted head of a mounted knightly opponent. King Stephen of England took up the battle-ax after his sword was broken at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141. Richard the Lionheart was supposedly a famous wielder of the battle-ax. Thirteenth-century chroniclers made the point of noting the use of the battle-ax by the nobility. James, the second earl of Douglas of Scotland, son of the great patriot James the Black Douglas, used the battle-ax, although he perished at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388. Later, French marshal Breton Bertrand du Guesclin and his companion in arms Olivier de Clisson, future constable of France, both used the battle-ax.

By the late 14th century, the noble knight put aside the battle-ax as a backup to the sword, which had undergone improvements with more tempering and narrowing of the pointed blade. Then came surface-hardened steel. With steel armor to contend with, many returned to the usefulness of the battle-ax. By this time, a basic horseman’s ax evolved with the functional need of a longer haft to use while sitting astride a horse, where one could get the most out of it. The full convex edge and swept concave head of the broadax could be used to best advantage by performing the so-called draw cut on horseback. The draw cut was an arcing overhead stroke of the curved saber blade used by the light cavalries of Islam. The result was a deadly efficient follow-through. The forward momentum on horseback made the damage that much more efficient. The horseman’s ax had a haft of up to three feet, usually requiring two hands, and a hole bored at the butt of the haft for inserting a leather thong for carrying at the saddle and winding at the wrist.

Building a More Practical Ax

In the early 14th century, the battle-ax head was further modified—but at the opposite end. The butt of the battle-ax head was flared slightly out in a small hammer-like shape for more utility. Archers carried a short ax with a hammer-like butt to pound in and sharpen stakes for a trench palisade, and it was often preferred to carrying the usual short sword. Beginning in the late 14th century, the battle-ax began to appear adorned with butt-end alternatives similar to the war hammer to help puncture that impenetrable armor. The butt of the head was extended with a spike of up to about six inches, which was used as another puncturing option and counterbalance. A well-placed and powerful hit with the spike could puncture, but the ax’s worked steel edge could put a bigger slice in armor on its own. A further option was a vertical, four-sided spike of six inches extending above the center of the head. This rather awkward stabbing weapon was used mainly for delivering the coup de grace to a fallen opponent. Although the back spike became shorter, the vertical spike fell out of favor in comparison with battle-axes and the horseman’s ax.

A modern-day reproduction of the s-shaped francisca battle-ax.

More practical additions were at hand. By the early 14th century, some battle-ax heads appeared with short, downward extensions from the head and along the haft to further secure it. This idea was furthered by reinforcing the haft by riveting metal bands called langets, extending partially or fully down both sides of the length of the haft. The langets were a means of protecting the battle-ax head from being sheared from the haft. A more effective solution to that outcome was to put the ax head on an all-iron or steel haft. This appeared in cylindrical and polygonal forms around the middle of the 15th century. Although heavier, the all-metal ax was also efficient. For protecting the hand against glancing and sliding blows, a small metal disk guard was added at the top of the ax grip. Something smiliar in larger form regularly appeared on the two-handed poleax.

“My Kingdom for a Horse!”

At least one king favored the battle-ax to such extent as to gamble his kingdom on it. By the later 15th century, after 100 years of fighting between England and France, a civil war erupted in England between two houses of the Plantagenets and Lancastrians with a red rose symbol and the challenging Yorkists with a white rose. This was the War of the Roses. For more than 20 years, bloody battles pitting relatives against one another continued after the Yorkists effectively took power in 1461. In 1483 Richard III seized power, becoming perhaps the most reviled monarch in English history.

Revisionists, including William Shakespeare, made a concerted effort to discredit Richard. In his play Henry VI, Part 3, Shakespeare has Richard ready to do anything to grab the throne: “Or hew my way out with a bloody axe.” The ax reference is relevant for Richard because evidence showed that from youth he practiced particularly with the battle-ax—so much so that his right arm was supposedly much more muscular than his left, as was his right shoulder and back. This probably gave the impression that he was deformed—thus the hunchback tradition.

In August 1485 it all came to a head at Bosworth Field, where Richard was defeated by Henry Tudor and a large force of Welsh archers and French mercenaries. Richard had already successfully intercepted Henry’s reserve and after the first shock had entered a swirling melee. He cleaved his way with surprising speed toward the frightened Henry, who was surrounded by bodyguards, before his horse became mired in the mud and the king threw down the ax and drew his sword for better reach. He was finally surrounded by a great mass of Welsh spearmen and cut down. Richard died bravely on the battlefield, crying out: “Treason! Treason!”—not, as Shakespeare had it: “A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!”

Replaced by the Sword and the Gun

Both all-metal and wooden haft battle-axes moved into the 16th century but were increasingly upstaged by more a versatile array of swords: infantry and cavalry sabers, curve-bladed short swords, and broad swords. But the all-steel battle-ax, usually without the vertical spike, did enjoy some splendor in the art of chiseled grips and engraved and etched blades for parade and ceremonial uses during the 16th and early 17th centuries. The battle-ax was still a popular secondary weapon in eastern Europe. Ornately chiseled all-steel battle-axes were popular cavalry weapons with the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century and into the 18th century in the Middle East and India. There they were called the tabar and had more curvature on the edge than Western designs. But for Europe as a whole, practicality centered on the battle-ax transformation into two-handed forms—the many pole arms and staff weapons with ax heads: poleax, Scottish lochaber ax, Russian bardiche, and various longer halberds.

Similar weapons were still a choice on 17th and 18th century battlefields, although firearms now ruled the day. In North America, trade axes with the Viking head became the new weapon of choice for Native Americans, replacing their wood and stone tomahawks. Hand-to-hand combat with the tomahawk would by necessity become a skill developed by frontiersmen during the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. The U.S. Navy’s boarding ax of the late 18th century looked similar to a short bearded ax, with three or more sharp teeth at the bottom back side of the edge to rake up and clear downed rigging and burned wreckage. By the 19th century, the typical broadax tool was used in camps and on battlefields by sappers and miners and at sea for onboard tasks. In modern times it has chiefly been used for engineering tasks.

Of all the impact and concussion weapons of military history, the ax remains an important tool, whether on the battlefield, in the forest, at throwing competitions, or simply in the backyard for the more peaceable pursuit of gardening.


Battle of Bad Axe

The Battle of Bad Axe was the culmination of the Black Hawk War. The Black Hawk war was a military conflict between the Sauk, Meskwaki (Fox), and the United States Military, led by General Atkinson. The conflict began in 1832 and took place in northwestern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin. The Native Americans, led by Black Hawk, crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois. The Native Americans moved across the Mississippi in order to settle land that their tribes used to settle.

The Battle of Bad Axe, also known as the Bad Axe Massacre, was the final fight in the Black Hawk War. It was a two day encounter. The reason this battle is also known as a massacre is due to the fact that the United States Army and the steamboat Warrior slaughtered the Sauk and Fox tribes that were trying to retreat across the Mississippi River and surrender.

The Black Hawk War was fought throughout Southern Wisconsin between the Sauk and Fox Native Americans, called the British Band, and the United States Military. The fighting took place between May and August 1832. The Native Americans were led by Chief Black Hawk and the United States Military in the area was under the direction of Brigadier General Henry Atkinson. The war was caused over land dispute between the government and the Native Americans.

After losing the Battle of Wisconsin Heights on July 21, 1832, near present day Sauk City, Wisconsin, the Native Americans retreated to the west. They made it to the east bank of the Mississippi River near present day Victory, WI on August 1, 1832, and this was the first day of the Battle of Bad Axe. The name of the battle comes from the close proximity to the mouth of the Bad Axe River.

On the first day of the battle, the steamboat Warrior was on the Mississippi River just off shore of the fleeing Native Americans. The Native Americans, seeking to surrender, raised the white flag to the steamboat. After some miscommunication, the Warrior opened fire on the Natives on shore. After several hours of fighting, 23 Sauk were killed. That night, Black Hawk made a move to meet up with Chippewa in the north. Instead, realizing the United States Military was much closer than they thought, he took a small band of troops and set up a rear guard to distract the military.

August 2, 1832 was the second day of the Battle of Bad Axe. This day is where the name the Bad Axe Massacre comes from. The first attack of the day was the United States Military spies encountering Chief Black Hawk and his rear guard. Fourteen Sauk were lost while one spy suffered critical wounds. The rear guard moved towards the mouth of the Bad Axe River in a diversion attempt to lead the military away from the rest of the Sauk and Fox people. This diversion was partially successful. It took three fifths of the military with them. The remaining two fifths found the rest of the Sauk and Fox people. These two fifths pushed the Native Americans closer to the river where the steamboat Warrior was waiting. The Native Americans were forced into the water and were caught between the Warrior and the military. Only seventy of the four hundred Native Americans made it across the river. The rest were killed in the water or on the banks of the Mississippi. These seventy were captured or killed by the Sioux, long time enemies of the Sauk and who had sided with the United States.

Black Hawk was not looking for violence or bloodshed when he crossed the river. Several attempts were made at peaceful talks on his part. One was made before any conflict had officially begun. Black Hawk recalled the first attempt in his autobiography. “I received news that three or four hundred white men on horse-back had been seen about eight miles off. I immediately started three young men with a white flag to meet them and conduct them to our camp, that we might hold a council with them and descend Rock river again. I also directed them, in case the whites had encamped, to return, and I would go and see them. After this party had started I sent five young men to see what might take place. The first party went to the camp of the whites, and were taken prisoners. The last party had not proceeded far before they saw about twenty men coming toward them at full gallop. They stopped, and, finding that the whites were coming toward them in such a warlike attitude, they turned and retreated, but were pursued, and two of them overtaken and killed. The others made their escape.”[1] This was the very early beginnings of the Black Hawk war. The conflict occurred at Dixon’s Ferry and is known as the Battle of Stillman’s Run or the Battle of Sycamore Creek. Even though Black Hawks goal wasn’t met, this battle is still considered a win for him and the first of the Black Hawk war. Although Black Hawk lost his messengers, his braves managed to make Major Stillman retreat.

After several months and other engagements, Black Hawk was pressed by the military into a retreat from Wisconsin Heights. They made their retreat to the Mississippi River at a stream called Bad Axe. This is where the Black Hawk war ultimately ended. Another attempt at peace was made just before the Battle of Bad Axe occurred. Black Hawk went for his white flag with all intention of surrendering. “We had been here but a little while before we saw a steamboat (“Warrior”) coming. I told my braves not to shoot, as I intended going on board, so that we might save our women and children. I knew the captain (Throckmorton) and was determined to give myself up to him. I then sent for my white flag. While the messenger was gone, I took a small piece of white cotton and put it on a pole, and called to the captain of the boat, and told him to send his little canoe ashore and let me come aboard. The people, on board asked whether we were Sacs or Winnebago’s. I told a Winnebago to tell them that we were Sacs, and wanted to give ourselves up! A Winnebago on the boat called out to us “to run a/id hide, that the whites were going to shoot!” About this time one of my braves had jumped into the river, bearing a white flag to the boat, when another sprang in after him and brought him to the shore. The firing then commenced from the boat, which was returned by my braves and continued for some time. Very few of my people were hurt after the first fire, having succeeded in getting behind old logs and trees, which shielded them from the enemy’s fire.”[1]. As seen by these two excerpts, the military was not looking for any form a peaceful ending to this. They wanted the complete destruction of the Sauk that had crossed the Mississippi. Even though the Sauk were trying to flee back across the Mississippi River. “Early in the morning a party of whites being in advance of the army, came upon our people, who were attempting to cross the Mississippi. They tried to give themselves up the whites paid no attention to their entreaties, but commenced slaughtering them. In a little while the whole army arrived. Our braves, but few in number, finding that the enemy paid no regard to age or sex, and seeing that they were murdering helpless women and little children, determined to fight until they were killed. As many women as could, commenced swimming the Mississippi, with their children on their backs. A number of them were drowned, and some shot before they could reach the opposite shore.”[1] In order to try to protect his people, Black Hawk made an attempt to lead General Atkinson away from where his the Sauk were crossing the Mississippi. “Black Hawk, it will be remembered, with about twenty braves had been endeavoring to lead the army of Gen. Atkinson up the river, and had succeeded. Hence, he was several miles up the Mississippi during the real engagement, and heard of it through the Indians who had escaped, as before stated. He very justly termed this so-called battle of the Bad Axe, (because it occurred near the mouth of that small stream), a massacre. Gov. Ford estimated the Indian loss at 150 killed and as many drowned in the river, and fifty prisoners.”[2] This massacre on the east side of the Mississippi as well as a band of Sioux that slaughtered and of Black Hawks people that made it across the Mississippi meant the end of the Black Hawk war.

Colonel Joseph Dickson recounted his experiences of the Black Hawk war in a personal narrative. The bulk of his writing tells about the Battle of Wisconsin Heights and the Battle of Bad Axe. The final two battles in the war. “In the month of May, when on the first intelligence of hostilities by the Indians, I joined a mounted company of volunteers raised at Platteville. At the organization [of the company] I was elected orderly sergeant, John H. Rountree, captain and in that capacity I served one month, when in consequence of the absence of the captain, I was chosen to command the company and then served about one month. Then, by the order of Colonel Dodge, I took command of a spy company, and was in front of the army during the chases to Rock River, Fort Winnebago, and to the Wisconsin Heights and at the Wisconsin Heights I with my spy company commenced the attack on a band of Indians who were kept in the rear of the retreating Indian army and chased them to the main body of Indians, when we were fired at several times, but without injury, and I returned to the advancing army without loss or injury to my command. After the battle of the Wisconsin Heights, and the army was supplied with provisions, we again pursued the Indian trail, and I took the lead with my company and followed to the Bad Ax by command of General Atkinson. At the Battle of Bad Ax, I discovered, the evening before the battle, the trail of Black Hawk with a party of about forty Indians, to have left the main trail and gone up the river, which fact I reported to the Commanding General. On the next morning, I with my command encountered and engaged a company of Indians at a place near to where I had the evening before discovered the trail of Black Hawk and his party. During the battle that ensued, my command killed fourteen Indians and after a short time, say half an hour’s engagement, General Dodge, with his command, and General Atkinson with his regular army, arrived at the place where I had engaged this party consisting of about forty Indians and about the time of their arrival, we had killed and dispersed this band of Indians. The main body of the enemy had gone down the river after they entered the river bottom. I pursued with my command, passing General Henry with his command formed on the Mississippi Bottom I crossed the slough, and engaged a squad of Indians, who were making preparations to cross the river after which we were fired upon and returned the fire of several bands or squads of Indians, before the army arrived. After the battle was over, I was taken with others on board of a steamer which came along soon after, to Prairie du Chien, where I was properly cared for, and my wounds received suitable attention. Since which, I have spent a short period in Illinois, and the balance of the time to the present I have devoted myself to agricultural pursuits on my farm, four miles southwest of Platteville.” [3]. This manuscript gives a military soldiers perspective of the war. It shows the enthusiasm of some of the military personal in the war.


Tomahawks & Hatches: Part 1 of 3 – Early History of Axes and Battle Axes.

Flint stone hand axe 300,000 years old

Axes were among the earliest tools of man found in the Ice and Stone Age. A lump of flint was hacked into chips to make a hatchet the size of a man’s hand. These early impliments were used for chopping, cutting, scraping, and sawing (some had jagged edges) and were found throughout England, Europe, Asia, and North America – over a hundred thousand years ago. As man advanced to making pottery, sewing clothing, and tilling grains, he still used stone, bone, and wood for his tools.

Stone Age Handaxes

Approximately 10,000 years ago, copper was discovered as an easy metal to melt. When mixed with tin, it was found to be hard enough to make tools, including knives and hatchets. This mixture was called bronze and is referred to as the bronze age which lasted until the discovery of iron, approximately five thousand years later. The earliest found smelted iron was 5,000 BC in Mesopotamia and 3,000 BC in India and Egypt.

These early uses of iron were mainly ceremonial and too expensive (eight times the value of gold) for everyday use including military. Therefore, bronze was still common until the manufacturing of iron became cheap enough to be used for tools and weapons. This occurred approximately 1,200 BC which became known as the Iron Age. Later still, steel, which is a hardened iron, was in use in China at around 400 BC and India around 200 BC. Alexander the Great, during his conquest of India, at one point received from his conquest not gold, but thirty pounds of steel. However, steel was not common in Europe until medieval times.

Flake, Greenstone, Hollow-edged axes, Roundstone axes

Hollow edged axe by Gransfors

Round Stone Axe c/o Gransfors

Stone-Age Axes were the first axes made of flint and stone and were held by the hand. These included from earliest on: core axe, flake axe (large flake chipped from a core), Lihult axe (roughly hewn greenstone axe – igneous rock containing feldspar and hornblende – of western Sweden), thin-butted axe (from flint for use as a working axe), round stone axe (greenstone axe with rounded profile), and hollow-edged axe (with a concave blade).

What has been called the Battle Axe Culture (3200 – 1800 BC) were stone shaft holed axes that were mounted on the end of shafts similar to later hatchets and axes. These were not made of flint, but various stones, and though the name indicates they were carried in war, they were more for status or ceremonial usages. It is believed that the shaft hole was made so small that it could not be attached to a sufficiently strong handle necessary for battle. These included from the earliest on:

Polygonal Axe, Double-headed battle Axe, Boat Axe

Polygonal axe c/o Gransfors

Double-headed Battle Axe c/o Gransfors

1. Polygonal axe (3,400-3,000 BC) which included a flared edge, an arched butt, and angled body with grooves and ridges. Usually of greenstone, it was hammered out and polished over the whole surface. This axe was an early example of the later Central European copper axes. 2. Double-headed battle axe (3400-2900 BC) mainly of Germany and Denmark. It had a flared edge that was common in later types of double-headed axes along with a flared butt. They were made from hard and homogeneous stones such as porphyry and so too were finely polished. 3. Boat axe is the old name for the shaft axe of modern use. They were single edged with a flared butt – similar in shape and design of a spear head.

Socket or Celt Axe, Socket Axe Head, Palstave Axe, Copper Axe

Socketed or Celt Axe c/o Gransfors

Socket Axe Head c/o Gransfors

Bronze Age Axes (2,000 – 500 AD for northern Europe) were often copies of stone axes. With the discovery of the copper and tin mixture, stone axes gave way to bronze with a head of either pure copper or bronze. The bronze axe was cast in molds which enabled the design to be copied in mass. These included from earliest on: 1. Socketed or Celt axe which had a wedge shaped head and no shaft hole. Instead the handle was fixed into a socket at the butt end. It was made hollow so the handle of the shaft was inserted into the head. It proved to be a functional working axe as the handle was often quite long. Later types were smaller with a flared edge. 2. Palstave ax (1500 – 1000 BC) had a narrow butt which inserted into a split wooden handle. The blade was flared and the sides were often decorated with spiral or angular patterns. It was mounted in the split end of a wooden handle and tied into place with leather straps.

Iron Age Axe Heads

Iron age axes (from around 500 BC in Europe) were basically the same as bronze and stone axes reproduced in iron. However, the new materials and designs including the strength and thickness of metals, led the appearance of the axes to change gradually. Non-shaft-hole axes disappeared and were replaced by axes with a hole for a handle. The heads also became larger with broader or ‘bearded’ blades.

Axes Used in Battle. The first axes used in battle were the same that were used in everyday life. Though fiction in the action ‘barbarian’ genre, such as the popular Conan the Barbarian series, used specific axes for battle welded by muscular warrior types, in reality, those who were called to war were ordinary tribesmen, mainly fathers and sons, who grabbed whatever tool was available when battling opposing tribes or kingdoms. It was only later, around 400 AD, with the advent of iron, that the focus shifted to developing specific axes for fighting.

Franziska axe was an early, smaller axe similar to the modern hatchets, that was specifically designed for battle, however it was also useful in the hunt. It was first used by the Franks and later Teutonic tribes and Goths from around 400 – 500 AD. The axe heads were thick and sharp with a distinct short handle. It was effective mostly as a hand weapon in close combat, yet its design allowed it to be thrown as a projectile. However, most combatants most likely kept a firm grip on their prized weapon so as not to be left standing unarmed. When thrown, it would frequently be at a distance of ten or twelve paces from the enemy, yet could still be deadly at larger distances. Because of its unusual shape, when correctly thrown, a Franziska rotated a number of times in the air before the axe blade hit its target. It rotated once at four to five meters, twice at eight to nine meters, and three times at a distance of twelve to thirteen meters. Though carried into battle, these axes were very useful as a projectile during the hunt. When game was spotted, it could, like the spear, be thrown quickly and quietly from a distance with great precision. And once thrown, even if the target was missed, it could be retrieved without threat of attack from an enemy.

Bayeux Tapestry featuring Viking Battle Axe

Scandinavia Battle Axe became popular during the Viking Age (800-1100 AD). Nordic smiths developed these axes with longer handles and thinner blades, making the axe head extra light so as to be readily carried into battle and not wear out the warrior through use. This type of axe was commonly in use during the Battle of Hastings in 1066 England as both Franks and Anglo Saxon Housecarls carried them into battle (as documented in the Bayeux Tapestry).

Light axes on long shafts, known as Hunganian Fokos axes, were carried by 10 th century Hungarian warriors The Bulgarians also used a similar design. From the 15th century on, shepherd’s axes appeared in Europe from modern day Romania. The axe was used as a versatile tool that served as a small axe, hammer, and walking stick. These axes became inseparable from shepherds throughout Europe which included heavy, personalized decorative straps.

Predecessor to the Hatchet, during the European Middle Ages and Renaissance (11 th to the 16 th centuries), was a small axe with a short handle which was often carried on the belt. They were more refined than its earlier model – Franziska axes. Included among these shorter, hatchet-like axes were throwing axes made entirely of iron in use by the late Middle Ages. The handle was around 25 centimeters long and ended in a point. The butt also had a sharp spike and the cutting edge was around 16 centimeters long.

Large Battle Axes were used by knights of armor who fought on foot. Often these larger axes had the butt end in an iron spike and the hand was protected by an iron plate on the handle. Fifteenth century knights in Germany and France used heavy battle axes which were intended to crush the opponent’s metal armor. They had a shorter handle and more of a blunt edge so to pound the opponent to submission.

Bearded axe, half-moon, bardiche, and halberd all were the common name for large battle axes with a broad long head on a long handle. They had an elongated edge with a sabre-like curve called a beard. The lower part of the blade was fixed to the handle with a rivet. The handle was often about 1.4 meters long. Some models had the front part of the axe blade shaped into a hand guard. Many varieties had one or more points or hooks at the butt or protruding from the top of the blade. These bearded halberds had a deadly function in battle when knights of armor met on the battlefield. Later on, particularly in the seventeenth century and right up until the early eighteenth century, they had a more symbolic role carried by a staff sergeant of a particular platoon or company within a regiment.

Executioner’s Broad Axe gradually replaced the sword as the weapon of choice for beheadings during the latter part of the Middle Ages right up until the 19 th century (Sweden still beheaded with the broad axe right up to 1910). Though England and most European countries implemented the broad axe during executions, the French still preferred a heavy sword to lob off one’s head.

Axe declined to the sword in popularity, especially as steel swords developed and became the choice of weapon for military officers. However, ordinary citizens and peasants continued to use the axe at times of unrest or in self-defense against bandits as it was cheap and easily accessible.

Eighteenth Century Military Use of axes was limited to a small axe or hatchet worn on the belt, carried mainly by huntsmen rifle corps (such as German Jaeger units and American ranger outfits) also some light infantry companies including the American Royal Riflemen and British rifle companies. Halberds were common throughout Europe and used during the American French and Indian War and American Revolution – however mainly for symbolic use.

Tomahawks of North American were small axes introduced to North America by European settlers and explorers. Before the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans lived in a Stone Age in which only flint and stones were used for tools and weapons they had never seen iron objects. War clubs were often carried into battle which were bludgeoning weapons such as heavy bones or wooden clubs with stone heads latched at the end. When Europeans first began to explore the New World of the Americas, ‘trade axes’, similar to small European axes worn at the belt, played a major role in trade with the natives – garnishing mainly furs and pelts for shipment back to Europe. These axes were given the collective name of tomahawks.

The word tomahawk either came from the Lenape tribe’s word tamahak, meaning ‘cutting tool’, or from the Powhatan or Algonquian native tongues. These small steel axes, common among the Europeans, had quickly gained favor with the Native Americans for hunting and domestic work. Though the war club continued to be an effective close quarter weapon among Native Americans, these small axes gained importance in battle. Tomahawks, which could be thrown, were part of a long-established European craft and came to be one of the leading symbols of pioneers and Native Americans in the new continent. Colonists propagated a false image of the tomahawk as being solely unique to an ‘Indian’ culture as these axes were so heavily traded among the native population. Tomahawks were frequently carried by the original settlers and ‘mountain men’. Centuries later, Hollywood films continued to promote these small, hand held throwing axes as an invention of the American frontier.

Steel Head Tomahawk

Tomahawks and hatchets were light in weight and particularly useful to the military, could be effectively used with just one hand. Both Native Americans and white settlers, including militiamen and later American, British, and German Infantrymen (mainly rifle and light infantry companies) attached these light weight tomahawks to their belts. They could be most effective in close up hand to hand combat or thrown at the enemy from a distance. Scalping became common in North America as bounties were paid to Native Americans by both sides of European combatants. These scalps, the removal of a portion of the enemy’s hair (dead or alive) became proof of casualties inflicted on the enemy and money or trade was paid in return. However, unlike romantic novels and the movie industry, mostly scalps were removed with a sharp knife and rarely (only when a knife was unavailable) was a tomahawk used. Native American tomahawks were also used in celebrations and ceremonies.

Atkinson, Alice Minerva. The European Beginnings of American History: An Introduction to the History of the United States. 1912: Ginn & Company, Boston, MA.

Web site: Gransfors Bruks AB Sweden. www.gransforsbruk.com/en/axe-knowledge/the-history-of-the-axe/ Gransfors Bruks built a business based around handcrafted axes and axe expertise. The axe forge is open to the public. In addition to the forge and factory shop, there is an axe museum that has many ancient axes through the centuries on display.

Holmes, Sir Richard. Weapon: A Visual History of Arms and Armour. 2010: Dorling Kindersley, London, UK.

Grant, David. Tomahawks: Traditional to Tactical. 2007: Paladin Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Grose, Francis. Military Antiquities Respecting a History of the English Army. 1801: Oxford University, England.


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