Sun Yat -Sen -oprør - Historie

Sun Yat -Sen -oprør - Historie


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Sun Yat-sen organiserede et hemmeligt revolutionært samfund i Canton i 1894. I 1895 forsøgte han at vælte Manchu-dynastiet. Hans første forsøg på oprør var uden held.

Sun Yat-sen bliver den første præsident i Republikken Kina

Næsten fire dusin delegerede samledes i Nanjing, en by i det østlige centrale Kina. De repræsenterede sytten kinesiske provinser og var tilhængere af Wuhan -revolutionen mod Qing -dynastiet, det sidste kejserlige dynasti i Kina. Den 25. december vendte Sun Yat-sen, spydspidsen bag revolutionen, tilbage til Kina efter seksten års eksil for at deltage i møderne. Fire dage senere blev han valgt til den midlertidige præsident for Republikken Kina.

Uddannet som læge udviklede Sun Yat-sen stor interesse for Kinas politiske situation. Han ærgrede sig over vestlige magters dominans over kinesiske anliggender - og også Qing -herskernes uvilje til at indtage moderne, vestlige måder. Med sine ideer forkastet af herskeren i en af ​​Kinas provinser dannede han i 1894 en gruppe med det formål at fremme reformer. I det næste år planlagde han oprør mod regimet - alle fra udlandet, da han frygtede fangst.

Mens flere oprør fandt sted fra 1900, havde oprøret i 1911 de længst varige konsekvenser. Qing -magt smuldrede, og intellektuelle og lokale krigsherrer var begge vokset til ro under dynastiets styre. Efter Suns valg pressede han Yuan Shikai - en magtfuld minister - til at deltage i oprøret. I februar erkendte kejseren, at han ikke længere kunne kontrollere Kina. Den 12. februar trådte han tilbage. To dage senere - efter at Sun havde fratrådt formandskabet - blev Yuan Shikai foreløbig præsident for republikken.

Qingens fald betød ikke enden på konflikten i Kina. Sun og Yuan faldt ud, og kampene blev genoptaget. Sun genvandt magten i 1923, men hans styre blev forkortet ved hans død to år senere. Han blev efterfulgt som leder af Guomindang (Nationalist Party) af Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) med nominel støtte fra kinesiske kommunister. Det sluttede kort tid efter, og i 1930'erne blev Kina styrtet ind i endnu en borgerkrig, da kommunisterne under Mao Zedong forsøgte at iscenesætte en revolution, der ville afsætte Guomindang -regeringen.

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Tidligt liv

Sun Yat-sen blev født Sun Wen i landsbyen Cuiheng, Guangzhou, Guangdong-provinsen den 12. november 1866, et af seks børn født af skrædder og bondebonde Sun Dacheng og hans kone Madame Yang. Sun Yat-sen gik på folkeskolen i Kina, men han flyttede til Honolulu, Hawaii i en alder af 13 år, hvor hans ældre bror Sun Mei havde boet siden 1871.

På Hawaii boede Sun Wen sammen med sin bror Sun Mei og studerede på Iolani School, hvor han tjente sit gymnasium i 1882 og tilbragte derefter et enkelt semester på Oahu College, før hans storebror pludselig sendte ham tilbage til Kina i en alder af 17 år . Sun Mei frygtede, at hans bror ville konvertere til kristendommen, hvis han blev længere på Hawaii.


Præsident for den kinesiske republik

Revolutionen havde fundet sted i Suns fravær. Tilskynderne var lavtstående hærofficerer i enheder, der var sympatiske for T'ung-meng hui. Sun fortsatte med at rejse mod øst over Atlanterhavet og gennem Europa for at anmode om diplomatisk og økonomisk støtte til det revolutionære regime. Da han kom tilbage til Kina juledag, havde oprøret bredt sig gennem Yangtze -dalen. En omtumlet velkomst hilste Sun velkommen, og i Nanking valgte revolutionære delegater fra 14 provinser ham til præsident for en midlertidig regering. Den 1. januar 1912 proklamerede Sun Yat-sen oprettelsen af ​​Republikken Kina.

Revolutionisterne manglede imidlertid magten til at detronisere Manchu -herskeren i Peking. Kun Yüan Shih-kai, stærk mand i Nordkina, kunne opnå dette. Sun indvilligede derfor i at opgive præsidentposten i bytte for abchinationen af ​​Manchus og Yüans accept af en republikansk styreform. Yüan gav sit samtykke og blev behørigt valgt af nationalforsamlingen i Nanking og indviet i Peking den 12. marts. Yüan manøvrerede derefter den midlertidige regering til at flytte til Peking i stedet for at overføre hovedstaden til Nanking. Sung Chiao-jen, parlamentarisk leder for T'ung-meng hui, forsøgte at kontrollere Yüans magt gennem nationalforsamlingen. Han bragte ledere for T'ung-meng hui og fire mindre partier ind i en fødereret organisation kaldet Kuomintang (National People's Party). Sun Yat-sen, der dog havde ringe smag for sådanne parlamentariske manøvrer, begyndte at promovere sit program for folks levebrød. Som nyudnævnt direktør for jernbaneudvikling tilbragte han efteråret og vinteren 1912 med at turnere på jernbanelinjer i Kina og Japan og udvikle storslåede planer for fremtiden.

I mellemtiden var der en bitter magtkamp i gang i Peking. Ved det nationale valg i februar 1913 vandt Kuomintang kontrollen over forsamlingen. Den 20. marts myrdede Yüans agenter Sung Chiao-jen på jernbanestationen i Shanghai. Sun skyndte sig tilbage og forlangte, at de skyldige blev stillet for retten. Yüan, støttet af et "reorganiseringslån" fra et udenlandsk konsortium, tog politiske og militære skridt mod Kuomintang. Dette udløste spredt, men ineffektiv modstand, den såkaldte anden revolution. Sun fordømte Yüan Yüan fjernede Sun fra kontoret og beordrede den 15. september hans arrestation. I begyndelsen af ​​december var Sun igen en politisk flygtning i Japan.


Voksenmål

Dr. Sun Yat-sen's mausoleum i Nanjing

Selvom han var læge, var politisk, social og religiøs forandring hovedmålet i hans liv. Noget af dette arbejde blev udført i Hong Kong, hvor han studerede og boede i løbet af tyverne. Fra 1888 til 1894 begyndte han og hans intellektuelle venner i Hong Kong at lede regeringens reformaktiviteter.

Han oprettede en medicinsk klinik i Macau. I 1894 forsøgte han at ændre regeringen ved at besøge en Qing -embedsmand og skrive et langt andragende. Da dette forsøg mislykkedes, begyndte han at organisere en reformbevægelse.


Anden revolution

Sun Yat-sen fortsatte med at galvanisere støtten til hans aktiviteter med det ene formål at afvise Manchu at oprette en republik. Sun Yat-sen opfandt de tre principper for folkene som hans politiske filosofi. Disse omfatter nationalisme, demokrati og velfærd for folket. Sun Yat-sen søgte at fordele jord ligeligt mellem folket. Sun Yat-sen og de revolutionære kinesiske studerende, der studerede i Tokyo og Japan, gik sammen om at danne Tongmenghui (United League) den 20. august 1905. Sun Yat-sen fik støtte fra flere andre grupper og mennesker, hvilket førte til Zhennanguan -opstanden ved Friendship Pass 1. december 1907. Også denne gang mislykkedes det efter syv dages kampe. Andre oprør i Huanggang, Huizhou syv kvinder søoprør og Quizhou -oprøret mislykkedes alle det år. Gruppen indledte Qin-Lian-opstanden og Hekou-oprøret i 1908, hvilket også mislykkedes. Den mislykkede opstand forårsagede nogle fracas i gruppen med nogle, der satte spørgsmålstegn ved Suns muligheder. Gruppen blev derefter opdelt i anti-Sun og pro-Sun medlemmerne.

Sun Yat-sen senere gik i eksil i USA, og gruppen blev ledet af Huang Xing. Huang Xing ledede et mislykket oprør i Guangzhou kaldet Yellow Flower Mound -oprøret den 27. april 1911, hvilket førte til mange revolutionæres død med kun 72 lig fundet. Huang Xing gav aldrig op og ledede en anden den 10. oktober 1911 i Wuchang, og denne gang lykkedes det. Oprøret sluttede de over 2000 års kejserlige styre i Kina. Da jeg hørte det vellykkede oprør, Sun Yat-sen vendte tilbage til Kina i december.

Efter den vellykkede opstand og styrtet af Qing -regeringen, Sun Yat-sen blev udnævnt til den foreløbige præsident den 29. december 1911 på et møde mellem repræsentanter fra provinser i Nanking. Li Yuanhong blev også udnævnt til den midlertidige vicepræsident Huang Xing, hærens minister. Sun Yat-sen trådte tilbage i 1912 for at Yuan Shikai overtog posten som den nye foreløbige præsident. Der var enighed om, at Yuan, der dengang havde ansvaret for Beiyang -hæren, hjalp med at få Qing -domstolen til at fordrive Yat-sen ville blive præsident. Han opfyldte det ved at få kejser Puyi til at abdicere sin trone den 12. februar 1912, og dermed hans overtagelse som præsident.


Indhold

Solens slægtsnavn var Sun Deming (Syūn ​​Dāk-mìhng 孫德明). [1] [8] Som barn var hans kæledyrs navn Tai Tseung (Dai-jeuhng 帝 象). [1] Da han var i skole, gav læreren ham navnet Sun Wen (Kantonesisk: Syūn ​​Màhn 孫文), som var det, Sun plejede at kalde sig selv det meste af sit liv. Solens høflighedsnavn var Zaizhi (Jai-jī 載 之), og hans døbt navn var Rixin (Yaht-sān 日新). [9] Mens han var i skole i Hong Kong, fik han kunstnavnet Yat-sen (kinesisk: 逸仙 pinyin: Yìxiān ). [10] Sūn Zhōngshān (孫中山), den mest populære af hans kinesiske navne, stammer fra hans japanske navn Nakayama Shō (中山 樵), pseudonymet givet ham af Tōten Miyazaki, mens han skjulte sig i Japan. [1]

Fødested og tidlige liv Rediger

Sun Deming blev født den 12. november 1866 af Sun Dacheng og Madame Yang. [2] Hans fødested var landsbyen Cuiheng, Xiangshan County (nu Zhongshan City), Guangdong. [2] Han havde en kulturel baggrund for Hakka [11] [12] og kantonesisk. Hans far ejede meget lidt jord og arbejdede som skrædder i Macau og som svend og portør. [13] Efter endt grundskole flyttede han til Honolulu i kongeriget Hawaii, hvor han levede et behageligt liv med beskeden rigdom, der blev støttet af hans ældre bror Sun Mei. [14] [15] [16] [17] Han opnåede efterskole på Hawaii. [18]

Uddannelsesår Rediger

I en alder af 10 begyndte Sun at søge skolegang, [1], og han mødte barndomsvennen Lu Haodong. [1] I en alder af 13 i 1878, efter at have modtaget et par års lokal skolegang, boede Sun hos sin ældre bror, Sun Mei (孫 眉) i Honolulu. [1] Sun Mei finansierede Sun Yat-sen's uddannelse og ville senere være en stor bidragsyder for styrtet af Manchus. [14] [15] [16] [17]

Under sit ophold i Honolulu gik Sun Yat-sen på ʻIolani School, hvor han studerede engelsk, britisk historie, matematik, videnskab og kristendom. [1] Selvom han oprindeligt ikke var i stand til at tale engelsk, hentede Sun Yat-sen hurtigt sproget og modtog en præmie for akademisk præstation fra kong David Kalākaua, inden han tog eksamen i 1882. [19] Han gik derefter på Oahu College (nu kendt som Punahou Skole) i et semester. [1] [20] I 1883 blev han sendt hjem til Kina, da hans bror var ved at være bekymret for, at Sun Yat-sen begyndte at omfavne kristendommen. [1]

Da han vendte tilbage til Kina i 1883 som 17 -årig, mødte Sun sin barndomsven Lu Haodong igen i Beijidian (北極 殿), et tempel i Cuiheng Village. [1] De så mange landsbyboere tilbede Beiji (bogstaveligt talt Nordpolen) Kejser-Gud i templet, og var utilfredse med deres gamle helbredelsesmetoder. [1] De brød statuen, pådrog sig vrede fra andre landsbyboere og flygtede til Hong Kong. [1] [21] [22] Mens han var i Hong Kong i 1883, studerede han på bispedømmet Boys School, og fra 1884 til 1886 var han på The Government Central School. [23]

I 1886 studerede Sun medicin på Guangzhou Boji Hospital under den kristne missionær John G. Kerr. [1] Ifølge sin bog "Kidnapped in London" hørte Sun i 1887 om åbningen af ​​Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese (forløberen for The University of Hong Kong) og besluttede straks at drage fordel af de "fordele, det tilbød . " [24] I sidste ende fik han licensen til kristen praksis som læge derfra i 1892. [1] [10] Især i sin klasse på 12 elever var Sun en af ​​de eneste to, der tog eksamen. [25] [26] [27]

I begyndelsen af ​​1880'erne sendte Sun Mei sin bror til ʻIolani School, som var under tilsyn af britiske anglikanere og ledet af en anglikansk prelat ved navn Alfred Willis, med undervisningssproget som engelsk. På skolen kom en ung Sun Wen først i kontakt med kristendommen. I sit arbejde spekulerede Schriffin på, at kristendommen skulle have stor indflydelse på Suns fremtidige politiske karriere. [28]

Sun blev senere døbt i Hong Kong (den 4. maj 1884) af pastor C. R. Hager [29] [30] [31] en amerikansk missionær fra Congregational Church of the United States (ABCFM) til sin brors foragt. Ministeren ville også udvikle et venskab med Sun. [32] [33] Sun deltog i Tsai Church (道 濟 會堂), grundlagt af London Missionary Society i 1888, [34], mens han studerede vestlig medicin i Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese. Sun forestillede sig en revolution, der lignede den kristne kirkes frelsesmission. Hans konvertering til kristendommen var relateret til hans revolutionære idealer og skubbe til avancement. [33]

Fire banditter redigerer

Under Qing-dynastiets oprør omkring 1888 var Sun i Hong Kong med en gruppe revolutionære tænkere, der fik tilnavnet Four Bandits på Hong Kong College of Medicine for kinesere. [35] Sun, der var blevet mere og mere frustreret over den konservative Qing -regering og dens afvisning af at tage viden fra de mere teknologisk avancerede vestlige nationer, forlod sin lægepraksis for at afsætte sin tid til at omdanne Kina. [ citat nødvendig ]

Furen and Revive China Society Edit

I 1891 mødte Sun revolutionære venner i Hong Kong, herunder Yeung Ku-wan, der var leder og grundlægger af Furen Literary Society. [36] Gruppen spredte ideen om at vælte Qing. I 1894 skrev Sun en andragende på 8.000 tegn til Qing Viceroy Li Hongzhang, der præsenterede sine ideer til modernisering af Kina. [37] [38] [39] Han rejste til Tianjin for personligt at præsentere andragendet for Li, men fik ikke et publikum. [40] Efter denne oplevelse vendte Sun sig uigenkaldeligt mod revolution. Han forlod Kina til Hawaii og grundlagde Revive China Society, der var forpligtet til at revolutionere Kinas velstand. Medlemmerne blev hovedsageligt hentet fra kinesiske udlændinge, især de lavere sociale klasser. Samme måned i 1894 blev Furen Literary Society fusioneret med Hong Kong -kapitlet i Revive China Society. [36] Herefter blev Sun sekretær for det nyligt fusionerede Revive China-samfund, som Yeung Ku-wan stod i spidsen for som præsident. [41] De forklædte deres aktiviteter i Hong Kong under drift af en virksomhed under navnet "Kuen Hang Club" [42]: 90 (乾 亨 行). [43]

Første kinesisk-japanske krig Rediger

I 1895 led Kina et alvorligt nederlag under den første kinesisk-japanske krig. Der var to typer svar. En gruppe intellektuelle hævdede, at Manchu Qing -regeringen kunne genoprette sin legitimitet ved med succes at modernisere. [44] Ved at understrege, at styrt af Manchu ville resultere i kaos og ville føre til, at Kina blev hugget op af imperialister, støttede intellektuelle som Kang Youwei og Liang Qichao at reagere med initiativer som Hundred Dages Reform. [44] I en anden fraktion ønskede Sun Yat-sen og andre som Zou Rong en revolution for at erstatte det dynastiske system med en moderne nationalstat i form af en republik. [44] De hundrede dages reform viste sig at være en fiasko i 1898. [45]

Første Guangzhou -oprør Rediger

I det andet år for oprettelsen af ​​Revive China -samfundet den 26. oktober 1895 planlagde og lancerede gruppen det første Guangzhou -oprør mod Qing i Guangzhou. [38] Yeung Ku-wan instruerede oprøret med start fra Hong Kong. [41] Men planer blev lækket ud, og mere end 70 medlemmer, herunder Lu Haodong, blev fanget af Qing -regeringen. Opstanden var en fiasko. Sun modtog hovedsagelig økonomisk støtte fra sin bror, der solgte de fleste af sine 12.000 hektar ranch og kvæg på Hawaii. [14] Derudover ville medlemmer af hans familie og slægtninge til Sun søge tilflugt hjemme hos sin bror Sun Mei på Kamaole i Kula, Maui. [14] [15] [16] [17] [46]

Eksil i Japan Rediger

Sun Yat-sen tilbragte tid i at bo i Japan, mens han var i eksil. Han blev støttet af den japanske politiker Tōten Miyazaki. De fleste japanere, der aktivt arbejdede med Sun, blev motiveret af en pan-asiatisk modstand mod vestlig imperialisme. [47] Mens han var i Japan, mødte Sun også og blev ven med Mariano Ponce, dengang diplomat i Den Første Filippinske Republik. [48] ​​Under den filippinske revolution og den filippinsk-amerikanske krig hjalp Sun Ponce med at skaffe våben bjærget fra det japanske militær og sende våbnene til Filippinerne. Ved at hjælpe den filippinske republik håbede Sun, at filippinerne ville vinde deres uafhængighed, så han kunne bruge øgruppen som et iscenesættelsespunkt for en anden revolution. Da krigen dog sluttede i juli 1902, stod USA sejrende ud af en bitter 3-årig krig mod republikken. Derfor forsvandt den filippinske drøm om uafhængighed med Suns håb om at alliere sig med Filippinerne i hans revolution i Kina. [49]

Huizhou -oprør i Kina Rediger

Den 22. oktober 1900 lancerede Sun Huizhou -opstanden for at angribe Huizhou og provinsmyndigheder i Guangdong. [50] Dette kom fem år efter den mislykkede Guangzhou -opstand. Denne gang appellerede Sun til triaderne om hjælp. [51] Denne opstand var også en fiasko. Miyazaki, der deltog i oprøret med Sun, skrev en redegørelse for denne revolutionære indsats under titlen "33-årig drøm" (三十 三年 之 夢) i 1902. [52] [53]

Yderligere eksil Rediger

Solen var i eksil ikke kun i Japan, men også i Europa, USA og Canada. Han skaffede penge til sit revolutionære parti og til støtte for oprør i Kina. Mens begivenhederne op til det er uklare, blev Sun Yat-sen i 1896 tilbageholdt i den kinesiske legation i London, hvor den kinesiske kejserlige hemmelige tjeneste planlagde at smugle ham tilbage til Kina for at henrette ham for hans revolutionære handlinger. [54] Han blev løsladt efter 12 dage gennem James Cantlies indsats, Jordkloden, Tiderne, og Udenrigsministeriet efterlod Sun en helt i Storbritannien. [note 2] James Cantlie, Suns tidligere lærer ved Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, fastholdt et livslangt venskab med Sun og ville senere skrive en tidlig biografi om Sun. [56] Sun skrev en bog i 1897 om hans tilbageholdelse med titlen "Kidnapped in London". [24]

Heaven and Earth Society, oversøiske rejser Rediger

En sekt "Himmel og Jord", kendt som Tiandihui, havde eksisteret i lang tid. [57] Gruppen er også blevet omtalt som "de tre samarbejdende organisationer" såvel som triaderne. [57] Sun Yat-sen brugte hovedsageligt denne gruppe til at udnytte sine rejser til udlandet for at få yderligere finansiel og ressourcestøtte til hans revolution. [57] Ifølge New York Times "forlod Sun Yat-sen sin landsby i Guangdong, det sydlige Kina, i 1879 for at slutte sig til en bror på Hawaii. Til sidst vendte han tilbage til Kina og flyttede derfra til den britiske koloni Hong Kong i 1883 . Det var der, han modtog sin vestlige uddannelse, sin kristne tro og pengene til revolution. " [58] Det var her Sun Yat-sen indså, at Kina var nødt til at ændre sine måder. Han vidste, at den eneste måde, hvorpå Kina ville ændre og modernisere, var at vælte Qing -dynastiet.

Ifølge Lee Yun-ping, formand for det kinesiske historiske samfund, havde Sun brug for et certifikat for at komme ind i USA på et tidspunkt, hvor den kinesiske eksklusionslov fra 1882 ellers ville have blokeret ham. [59] På Suns første forsøg på at komme ind i USA blev han dog stadig anholdt. [59] Han blev senere reddet ud efter 17 dage. [59] I marts 1904 opnåede Sun Yat-sen, mens han var bosat i Kula, Maui, et certifikat for hawaiisk fødsel, udstedt af Hawaii-territoriet, hvorefter "han blev født på Hawaii-øerne den 24. november, AD 1870. " [60] [61] Han gav afkald på det, efter at det tjente sit formål at omgå den kinesiske eksklusionslov fra 1882. [61] De officielle filer i USA viser, at Sun havde USA's nationalitet, flyttede til Kina med sin familie i en alder af 4, og vendte tilbage til Hawaii 10 år senere. [62]

Tongmenghui Rediger

I 1904 kom Sun Yat-sen til med målet "at udvise de tatariske barbarer (dvs. Manchu), genoplive Zhonghua, oprette en republik og fordele jord ligeligt mellem folket" (驅除 韃 虜, 恢復 中華, 創立民國, 平均 地 權). [63] En af Suns store arv var oprettelsen af ​​hans politiske filosofi om Folkets tre principper. Disse principper omfattede princippet om nationalisme (minzu, 民族), om demokrati (minquan, 民權) og om velfærd (minsheng, 民生). [63]

Den 20. august 1905 sluttede Sun sig sammen med revolutionære kinesiske studerende, der studerede i Tokyo for at danne den samlede gruppe Tongmenghui (United League), der sponsorerede oprør i Kina. [63] [64] I 1906 nåede antallet af Tongmenghui -medlemmer 963 mennesker. [63]

Malaya support Rediger

Solens bemærkelsesværdighed og popularitet rækker ud over regionen Greater China, især til Nanyang (Sydøstasien), hvor en stor koncentration af oversøiske kinesere var bosat i Malaya (Malaysia og Singapore). Mens han var i Singapore, mødte han lokale kinesiske købmænd Teo Eng Hock (張永福), Tan Chor Nam (陳楚楠) og Lim Nee Soon (林義順), som markerer begyndelsen på direkte støtte fra Nanyang -kineserne. Singapore -kapitlet i Tongmenghui blev oprettet den 6. april 1906, [66] selvom nogle optegnelser hævder, at stiftelsesdatoen er slutningen af ​​1905. [66] Villaen, der blev brugt af Sun, blev kendt som Wan Qing Yuan. [66] [67] På dette tidspunkt var Singapore hovedkvarter for Tongmenghui. [66]

Efter grundlæggelsen af ​​Tong Meng Hui fortalte Dr Sun således etableringen af ​​The Chong Shing Yit Pao som alliancens talerør for at fremme revolutionære ideer. Senere indledte han oprettelsen af ​​læseklubber på tværs af Singapore og Malaysia for at formidle revolutionære ideer blandt lavere klassen gennem offentlige læsninger af avishistorier. Det Forenede Kinesiske Bibliotek, grundlagt den 8. august 1910, var en sådan læseklub, der først blev oprettet på lejet ejendom på anden sal i Wan He Salt Traders i North Boat Quay. [68] [ citat nødvendig ]

Den første faktiske United Chinese Library -bygning blev bygget mellem 1908 og 1911 under Fort Canning - 51 Armenian Street, påbegyndte operationer i 1912. Biblioteket blev oprettet som en del af de 50 læsesale af de kinesiske republikanere til at fungere som en informationsstation og forbindelsespunkt for de revolutionære. I 1987 blev biblioteket flyttet til sit nuværende sted på Cantonment Road. Men den armenske gadebygning er stadig intakt med plaketten ved indgangen med Sun Yat Sens ord. Med et indledende medlemskab på over 400 har biblioteket omkring 180 medlemmer i dag. Selvom Det Forenede Kinesiske Bibliotek med 102 års historie ikke var den eneste læseklub i Singapore i løbet af tiden, er det i dag det eneste af sin slags, der er tilbage. [ citat nødvendig ]

Siamese support Rediger

I 1903 foretog Sun en hemmelig rejse til Bangkok, hvor han søgte midler til sin sag i Sydøstasien. Hans loyale tilhængere udgav aviser og gav uvurderlig støtte til formidlingen af ​​hans revolutionære principper og idealer blandt kinesisk afstamning i Thailand. I Bangkok besøgte Sun Yaowarat Road i Bangkoks Chinatown. Det var på denne gade, at Sun holdt en tale, der påstod, at oversøiske kinesere var "revolutionens moder". Han mødte også lokale kinesiske købmænd Seow Houtseng, [69], hvis sendte økonomisk støtte til ham.

Solens tale på Yaowarat -gaden blev mindet om, at gaden senere blev navngivet "Sun Yat Sen Street" eller "Soi Sun Yat Sen" (thai: ซอย ซุน ยั ต เซ็น) til ære for ham. [70]

Zhennanguan -oprør Rediger

Den 1. december 1907 ledede Sun Zhennanguan -oprøret mod Qing ved Friendship Pass, som er grænsen mellem Guangxi og Vietnam. [71] Opstanden mislykkedes efter syv dages kampe. [71] [72] I 1907 var der i alt fire opstande, der mislykkedes, herunder Huanggang -oprør, Huizhou syv kvinder søoprør og Qinzhou -oprør. [66] I 1908 mislykkedes yderligere to opstande efter hinanden, herunder Qin-lian-oprør og Hekou-oprør. [66]

Anti-Sun fraktionisme Rediger

På grund af disse fiaskoer blev Suns ledelse udfordret af elementer inde fra Tongmenghui, der ønskede at fjerne ham som leder. I Tokyo 1907–1908 rejste medlemmer fra det nyligt fusionerede restaurationssamfund tvivl om Suns legitimationsoplysninger. [66] Tao Chengzhang (陶成章) og Zhang Binglin fordømte offentligt Sun med en åben folder kaldet "En erklæring om Sun Yat-sen's kriminelle handlinger af revolutionærerne i Sydøstasien". [66] Dette blev trykt og distribueret i reformistiske aviser som Nanyang Zonghui Bao. [66] [73] Deres mål var at målrette Sun som en leder, der førte et oprør for profitgevinster. [66]

Revolutionærerne blev polariseret og delt mellem pro-Sun og anti-Sun lejre. [66] Sun kæmpede offentligt for kommentarer om, hvordan han havde noget at vinde økonomisk fra revolutionen. [66] Men inden den 19. juli 1910 måtte hovedkvarteret i Tongmenghui flytte fra Singapore til Penang for at reducere anti-Sun-aktiviteterne. [66] Det er også i Penang, at Sun og hans tilhængere ville lancere den første kinesiske "daglige" avis, Kwong Wah Yit Poh i december 1910. [71]

1911 revolution Rediger

For at sponsorere flere oprør fremsatte Sun et personligt krav om økonomisk bistand ved Penang -konferencen, der blev afholdt den 13. november 1910 i Malaya. [74] Lederne lancerede et stort donationsdrev på tværs af den malaysiske halvø. [74] De hævede HK $ 187.000. [74]

Den 27. april 1911 ledede revolutionære Huang Xing et andet Guangzhou -oprør kendt som den gule blomsterhøjs oprør mod Qing. Oprøret mislykkedes og endte med katastrofe, der blev fundet organer af kun 72 revolutionære. [75] Revolutionærerne huskes som martyrer. [75]

Den 10. oktober 1911 fandt der et militært oprør sted ved Wuchang ledet igen af ​​Huang Xing. På det tidspunkt havde Sun ingen direkte involvering, da han stadig var i eksil. Huang stod for revolutionen, der sluttede over 2000 års kejserligt styre i Kina. Da Sun erfarede om det vellykkede oprør mod Qing -kejseren fra presserapporter, vendte han tilbage til Kina fra USA ledsaget af sin nærmeste udenlandske rådgiver, amerikaneren, "General" Homer Lea. Han mødte Lea i London, hvor han og Lea uden held forsøgte at arrangere britisk finansiering til den nye kinesiske republik. Sun og Lea sejlede derefter til Kina og ankom der den 21. december 1911. [76]

Opstanden udvidede sig til Xinhai -revolutionen, også kendt som "kinesisk revolution" for at vælte den sidste kejser Puyi. Efter denne begivenhed blev 10. oktober kendt som minde om Double Ten Day. [77]

Foreløbig regering Rediger

Den 29. december 1911 valgte et møde mellem repræsentanter fra provinser i Nanking (Nanjing) Sun Yat-sen som "foreløbig præsident" (臨時 大 總統). [78] 1. januar 1912 blev fastsat som den første dag i republikkens første år. [79] Li Yuanhong blev midlertidig vicepræsident, og Huang Xing blev minister for hæren. Den nye midlertidige regering i Republikken Kina blev oprettet sammen med den foreløbige forfatning for Republikken Kina. Sun krediteres for finansieringen af ​​revolutionerne og for at holde revolutionens ånd i live, selv efter en række mislykkede opstande. Hans vellykkede fusion af mindre revolutionære grupper til et enkelt større parti gav et bedre grundlag for alle dem, der delte de samme idealer. En række ting blev introduceret, såsom republikkalenderen og ny mode som Zhongshan -dragter.

Beiyang regering Rediger

Yuan Shikai, der kontrollerede Beiyang -hæren, militæret i det nordlige Kina, blev lovet stillingen som præsident for Republikken Kina, hvis han kunne få Qing -domstolen til at abdisere. [80] Den 12. februar 1912 abdikerede kejser Puyi tronen. [79] Sun trådte tilbage som præsident, og Yuan blev den nye foreløbige præsident i Beijing den 10. marts 1912. [80] Den foreløbige regering havde ingen egne militære styrker. Dens kontrol over elementer i den nye hær, der havde myrdet, var begrænset, og der var stadig betydelige kræfter, som stadig ikke havde erklæret mod Qing.

Sun Yat-sen sendte telegrammer til lederne i alle provinser og anmodede dem om at vælge og etablere Republikken Kinas nationalforsamling i 1912. [81] I maj 1912 flyttede den lovgivende forsamling fra Nanjing til Beijing med sine 120 medlemmer fordelt mellem medlemmer af Tongmenghui og et republikansk parti, der støttede Yuan Shikai. [82] Mange revolutionære medlemmer var allerede foruroliget over Yuans ambitioner og den nordligt baserede Beiyang -regering.

Nationalistisk parti og anden revolution Rediger

Tongmenghui -medlemmet Song Jiaoren forsøgte hurtigt at kontrollere parlamentet. Han mobiliserede den gamle Tongmenghui i kernen med fusionen af ​​en række nye små partier til at danne et nyt politisk parti kaldet Kuomintang (kinesisk nationalistisk parti, almindeligt forkortet som "KMT") den 25. august 1912 i Huguang Guild Hall Beijing. [82] Valget til nationalforsamling 1912–1913 blev betragtet som en kæmpe succes for KMT, der vandt 269 af de 596 pladser i underhuset og 123 af de 274 senatsæder. [80] [82] Som gengældelse blev den nationale partileder Song Jiaoren myrdet, næsten helt sikkert af en hemmelig ordre fra Yuan, den 20. marts 1913. [80] Den anden revolution fandt sted, hvor Sun og KMT militærstyrker forsøgte at vælte Yuans styrker af omkring 80.000 mænd i en væbnet konflikt i juli 1913. [83] Oprøret mod Yuan var uden succes. I august 1913 flygtede Sun Yat-sen til Japan, hvor han senere fik økonomisk bistand via politiker og industrimand Fusanosuke Kuhara. [84]

Politisk kaos Rediger

I 1915 udråbte Yuan Shikai Kinas imperium (1915–1916) med sig selv som kejser i Kina. Sun deltog i anti-monarki-krigen i forfatningsbeskyttelsesbevægelsen, samtidig med at han støttede bandittledere som Bai Lang under Bai Lang-oprøret. Dette markerede begyndelsen på Warlord Era. I 1915 skrev Sun til Second International, en socialistisk organisation i Paris og bad den sende et team af specialister til at hjælpe Kina med at oprette verdens første socialistiske republik. [85] På det tidspunkt var der mange teorier og forslag til, hvad Kina kunne være. I det politiske rod blev både Sun Yat-sen og Xu Shichang annonceret som præsident for Republikken Kina. [86]

Guangzhou militaristiske regering Rediger

Kina var blevet delt mellem regionale militære ledere. Sun så faren ved dette og vendte tilbage til Kina i 1917 for at gå ind for kinesisk genforening. I 1921 startede han en selvudnævnt militærregering i Guangzhou og blev valgt til stormarskal. [87] Mellem 1912 og 1927 var der oprettet tre regeringer i Sydkina: Den foreløbige regering i Nanjing (1912), den militære regering i Guangzhou (1921–1925) og den nationale regering i Guangzhou og senere Wuhan (1925–1927 ). [88] The government in the South was established to rival the Beiyang government in the north. [87] Yuan Shikai had banned the KMT. The short lived Chinese Revolutionary Party was a temporary replacement for the KMT. On 10 October 1919 Sun resurrected the KMT with the new name Chung-kuo Kuomintang, or the "Nationalist Party of China". [82]

KMT–CPC cooperation Edit

By this time Sun had become convinced that the only hope for a unified China lay in a military conquest from his base in the south, followed by a period of political tutelage that would culminate in the transition to democracy. In order to hasten the conquest of China, he began a policy of active cooperation with the Communist Party of China (CPC). Sun and the Soviet Union's Adolph Joffe signed the Sun-Joffe Manifesto in January 1923. [3] Sun received help from the Comintern for his acceptance of communist members into his KMT. Revolutionary and socialist leader Vladimir Lenin praised Sun and the KMT for their ideology and principles. Lenin praised Sun and his attempts at social reformation, and also congratulated him for fighting foreign imperialism. [89] [90] [91] Sun also returned the praise, calling him a "great man", and sent his congratulations on the revolution in Russia. [92]

With the Soviets' help, Sun was able to develop the military power needed for the Northern Expedition against the military at the north. He established the Whampoa Military Academy near Guangzhou with Chiang Kai-shek as the commandant of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA). [93] Other Whampoa leaders include Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin as political instructors. This full collaboration was called the First United Front.

Finance concerns Edit

In 1924 Sun appointed his brother-in-law T. V. Soong to set up the first Chinese Central bank called the Canton Central Bank. [94] To establish national capitalism and a banking system was a major objective for the KMT. [95] However Sun was not without some opposition as there was the Canton volunteers corps uprising against him.

Final speeches Edit

In February 1923 Sun made a presentation to the Students' Union in Hong Kong University and declared that it was the corruption of China and the peace, order and good government of Hong Kong that turned him into a revolutionary. [96] [97] This same year, he delivered a speech in which he proclaimed his Three Principles of the People as the foundation of the country and the Five-Yuan Constitution as the guideline for the political system and bureaucracy. Part of the speech was made into the National Anthem of the Republic of China.

On 10 November 1924, Sun traveled north to Tianjin and delivered a speech to suggest a gathering for a "national conference" for the Chinese people. It called for the end of warlord rules and the abolition of all unequal treaties with the Western powers. [98] Two days later, he traveled to Beijing to discuss the future of the country, despite his deteriorating health and the ongoing civil war of the warlords. Among the people he met was the Muslim General Ma Fuxiang, who informed Sun that they would welcome his leadership. [99] On 28 November 1924 Sun traveled to Japan and gave a speech on Pan-Asianism at Kobe, Japan. [100]

Illness and death Edit

For many years, it was popularly believed that Sun died of liver cancer. On 26 January 1925, Sun underwent an exploratory laparotomy at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) to investigate a long-term illness. This was performed by the head of the Department of Surgery, Adrian S. Taylor, who stated that the procedure "revealed extensive involvement of the liver by carcinoma" and that Sun only had about ten days to live. Sun was hospitalized and his condition was treated with radium. [101] Sun survived the initial ten-day period and on 18 February, against the advice of doctors, he was transferred to the KMT headquarters and treated with traditional Chinese medicine. This too was unsuccessful and he died on 12 March at the age of 58. [102] Contemporary reports in New York Times, [102] Tid, [103] and the Chinese newspaper Qun Qiang Bao all reported the cause of death as liver cancer, based on Taylor's observation. [104]

Following this the body then was preserved in mineral oil [105] and taken to the Temple of Azure Clouds, a Buddhist shrine in the Western Hills a few miles outside of Beijing. [106] He also left a short political will ( 總理遺囑 ) penned by Wang Jingwei, which had a widespread influence in the subsequent development of the Republic of China and Taiwan. [107]

In 1926, construction began on a majestic mausoleum at the foot of Purple Mountain in Nanjing, and this was completed in the spring of 1929. On 1 June 1929, Sun's remains were moved from Beijing and interred in the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum.

By pure chance, in May 2016, an American pathologist named Rolf F. Barth was visiting the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall in Guangzhou when he noticed a faded copy of the original autopsy report on display. The autopsy was performed immediately after Sun's death by James Cash, a pathologist at PUMCH. Based on a tissue sample, Cash concluded that the cause of death was an adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder that had metastasized to the liver. In modern China, liver cancer is far more common than gallbladder cancer and although the incidence rates of either in 1925 are not known, if one assumes that they were similar at that time, then the original diagnosis by Taylor was a logical conclusion. From the time of Sun's death until the appearance of Barth's report [101] in the Chinese Journal of Cancer in September 2016 (now known as Cancer Communications [108] since 1 March 2018), the true cause of death of Sun Yat-sen was not reported in any English-language publication. Even in Chinese-language sources, it only appeared in one non-medical online report in 2013. [101] [109]

Power struggle Edit

After Sun's death, a power struggle between his young protégé Chiang Kai-shek and his old revolutionary comrade Wang Jingwei split the KMT. At stake in this struggle was the right to lay claim to Sun's ambiguous legacy. In 1927 Chiang Kai-shek married Soong Mei-ling, a sister of Sun's widow Soong Ching-ling, and subsequently he could claim to be a brother-in-law of Sun. When the Communists and the Kuomintang split in 1927, marking the start of the Chinese Civil War, each group claimed to be his true heirs, a conflict that continued through World War II. Sun's widow, Soong Ching-ling, sided with the Communists during the Chinese Civil War and served from 1949 to 1981 as Vice-President (or Vice-Chairwoman) of the People's Republic of China and as Honorary President shortly before her death in 1981.

Cult of personality Edit

A personality cult in the Republic of China was centered on Sun and his successor, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Chinese Muslim Generals and Imams participated in this cult of personality and one party state, with Muslim General Ma Bufang making people bow to Sun's portrait and listen to the national anthem during a Tibetan and Mongol religious ceremony for the Qinghai Lake God. [110] Quotes from the Quran and Hadith were used among Hui Muslims to justify Chiang Kai-shek's rule over China. [111]

The Kuomintang's constitution designated Sun as party president. After his death, the Kuomintang opted to keep that language in its constitution to honor his memory forever. The party has since been headed by a director-general (1927–1975) and a chairman (since 1975), which discharge the functions of the president.

Father of the Nation Edit

Sun Yat-sen remains unique among 20th-century Chinese leaders for having a high reputation both in mainland China and in Taiwan. In Taiwan, he is seen as the Father of the Republic of China, and is known by the posthumous name Father of the Nation, Mr. Sun Zhongshan (Chinese: 國父 孫中山先生 , where the one-character space is a traditional homage symbol). [8] His likeness is still almost always found in ceremonial locations such as in front of legislatures and classrooms of public schools, from elementary to senior high school, and he continues to appear in new coinage and currency.

Forerunner of the revolution Edit

On the mainland, Sun is seen as a Chinese nationalist, proto-socialist, first president of a Republican China and is highly regarded as the Forerunner of the Revolution ( 革命先行者 ). [3] He is even mentioned by name in the preamble to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. In recent years, the leadership of the Communist Party of China has increasingly invoked Sun, partly as a way of bolstering Chinese nationalism in light of Chinese economic reform and partly to increase connections with supporters of the Kuomintang on Taiwan which the PRC sees as allies against Taiwan independence. Sun's tomb was one of the first stops made by the leaders of both the Kuomintang and the People First Party on their pan-blue visit to mainland China in 2005. [112] A massive portrait of Sun continues to appear in Tiananmen Square for May Day and National Day.

Economic development Edit

Sun Yat-sen spent years in Hawaii as a student in the late 1870s and early 1880s, and was highly impressed with the economic development he saw there. He used the independent Kingdom of Hawaii as a model to develop his vision of a technologically modern and politically independent and actively anti-imperialist China. [113] Sun Yat-sen was an important pioneer of international development, proposing in the 1920s international institutions of the sort that appeared after World War II. He focused on China, with its vast potential and weak base of mostly local entrepreneurs. [114] His key proposal was socialism. He proposed:

The State will take over all the large enterprises we shall encourage and protect enterprises which may reasonably be entrusted to the people the nation will possess equality with other nations every Chinese will be equal to every other Chinese both politically and in his opportunities of economic advancement. [115]

Sun Yat-sen was born to Sun Dacheng ( 孫達成 ) and his wife, Lady Yang ( 楊氏 ) on 12 November 1866. [116] At the time his father was age 53, while his mother was 38 years old. He had an older brother, Sun Dezhang ( 孫德彰 ), and an older sister, Sun Jinxing ( 孫金星 ), who died at the early age of 4. Another older brother, Sun Deyou ( 孫德祐 ), died at the age of 6. He also had an older sister, Sun Miaoqian ( 孫妙茜 ), and a younger sister, Sun Qiuqi ( 孫秋綺 ). [26]

At age 20, Sun had an arranged marriage with fellow villager Lu Muzhen. She bore a son, Sun Fo, and two daughters, Sun Jinyuan ( 孫金媛 ) and Sun Jinwan ( 孫金婉 ). [26] Sun Fo was the grandfather of Leland Sun, who spent 37 years working in Hollywood as an actor and stuntman. [117] Sun Yat-sen was also the godfather of Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger, American author and poet who wrote under the name Cordwainer Smith. [118]

Sun's first concubine, the Hong Kong-born Chen Cuifen, lived in Taiping, Perak, Malaysia for 17 years. The couple adopted a local girl as their daughter. Cuifen subsequently relocated to China, where she died. [119]

On 25 October 1915 in Japan, Sun married Soong Ching-ling, one of the Soong sisters, [26] [120] Soong Ching-Ling's father was the American-educated Methodist minister Charles Soong, who made a fortune in banking and in printing of Bibles. Although Charles Soong had been a personal friend of Sun's, he was enraged when Sun announced his intention to marry Ching-ling because while Sun was a Christian he kept two wives, Lu Muzhen and Kaoru Otsuki Soong viewed Sun's actions as running directly against their shared religion.

Soong Ching-Ling's sister, Soong Mei-ling, later married Chiang Kai-shek.

Memorials and structures in Asia Edit

In most major Chinese cities one of the main streets is named Zhongshan Lu ( 中山路 ) to celebrate his memory. There are also numerous parks, schools, and geographical features named after him. Xiangshan, Sun's hometown in Guangdong, was renamed Zhongshan in his honor, and there is a hall dedicated to his memory at the Temple of Azure Clouds in Beijing. There are also a series of Sun Yat-sen stamps.

Other references to Sun include the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou and National Sun Yat-sen University in Kaohsiung. Other structures include Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall subway station, Sun Yat-sen house in Nanjing, Dr Sun Yat-sen Museum in Hong Kong, Chung-Shan Building, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall in Guangzhou, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall in Taipei and Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall in Singapore. Zhongshan Memorial Middle School has also been a name used by many schools. Zhongshan Park is also a common name used for a number of places named after him. The first highway in Taiwan is called the Sun Yat-sen expressway. Two ships are also named after him, the Chinese gunboat Chung Shan and Chinese cruiser Yat Sen. The old Chinatown in Calcutta (now known as Kolkata), India has a prominent street by the name of Sun Yat-sen street. There are also two streets named after Sun Yat-sen, located in the cities of Astrakhan and Ufa, Russia.

In George Town, Penang, Malaysia, the Penang Philomatic Union had its premises at 120 Armenian Street in 1910, during the time when Sun spent more than four months in Penang, convened the historic "Penang Conference" to launch the fundraising campaign for the Huanghuagang Uprising and founded the Kwong Wah Yit Poh this house, which has been preserved as the Sun Yat-sen Museum (formerly called the Sun Yat Sen Penang Base), was visited by President designate Hu Jintao in 2002. The Penang Philomatic Union subsequently moved to a bungalow at 65 Macalister Road which has been preserved as the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Centre Penang.

As dedication, the 1966 Chinese Cultural Renaissance was launched on Sun's birthday on 12 November. [121]

The Nanyang Wan Qing Yuan in Singapore have since been preserved and renamed as the Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall. [67] A Sun Yat-sen heritage trail was also launched on 20 November 2010 in Penang. [122]

Sun's US citizen Hawaii birth certificate that show he was not born in the ROC, but instead born in the US was on public display at the American Institute in Taiwan on US Independence day 4 July 2011. [123]

A street in Medan, Indonesia is named "Jalan Sun Yat-Sen" in honour of him. [124]

A street named "Tôn Dật Tiên" (Sino-Vietnamese name for Sun Yat-Sen) is located in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Gallery Edit

Sun Yat-sen Memorial Centre, George Town, Penang, Malaysia

Memorials and structures outside of Asia Edit

St. John's University in New York City has a facility built in 1973, the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, built to resemble a traditional Chinese building in honor of Sun. [125] Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Classical Chinese Garden is located in Vancouver, the largest classical Chinese gardens outside of Asia. There is the Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Park in Chinatown, Honolulu. [126] On the island of Maui, there is the little Sun Yat-sen Park at Kamaole. It is located near to where his older brother had a ranch on the slopes of Haleakala in the Kula region. [15] [16] [17] [46]

In Chinatown, Los Angeles, there is a seated statue of him in Central Plaza. [127] In Sacramento, California there is a bronze statue of Sun in front of the Chinese Benevolent Association of Sacramento. Another statue of Sun Yat-sen by Joe Rosenthal can be found at Riverdale Park in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and there is a seated statue in Toronto's downtown Chinatown. There is also the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University. In Chinatown, San Francisco, there is a 12-foot statue of him on Saint Mary's Square. [128]

In late 2011, the Chinese Youth Society of Melbourne, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of China, unveiled, in a Lion Dance Blessing ceremony, a memorial statue of Sun outside the Chinese Museum in Melbourne's Chinatown, on the spot where their traditional Chinese New Year Lion Dance always ends. [129]

In 1993 Lily Sun, one of Sun Yat-sen's granddaughters, donated books, photographs, artwork and other memorabilia to the Kapi'olani Community College library as part of the "Sun Yat-sen Asian collection". [130] During October and November every year the entire collection is shown. [130] In 1997 the "Dr Sun Yat-sen Hawaii foundation" was formed online as a virtual library. [130] In 2006 the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit labeled one of the hills explored "Zhongshan". [131]

The plaque shown earlier in this article is by Dora Gordine, and is situated on the site of Sun's lodgings in London in 1896, 8 Grays Inn Place. There is also a blue plaque commemorating Sun at The Kennels, Cottered, Hertfordshire, the country home of the Cantlies where Sun came to recuperate after his rescue from the legation in 1896. [ citat nødvendig ]

A street named Sun Yat-Sen Avenue is located in Markham, Ontario. This is the first such street name outside of Asia. [ citat nødvendig ]

Opera Edit

Dr. Sun Yat-sen [132] ( 中山逸仙 ZhōngShān yì xiān ) is a 2011 Chinese-language western-style opera in three acts by the New York-based American composer Huang Ruo who was born in China and is a graduate of Oberlin College's Conservatory as well as the Juilliard School. The libretto was written by Candace Mui-ngam Chong, a recent collaborator with playwright David Henry Hwang. [133] It was performed in Hong Kong in October 2011 and was given its North American premiere on 26 July 2014 at The Santa Fe Opera.

TV series and films Edit

The life of Sun is portrayed in various films, mainly Soong -søstrene og Road to Dawn. A fictionalized assassination attempt on his life was featured in Bodyguards and Assassins. He is also portrayed during his struggle to overthrow the Qing dynasty in Once Upon a Time in China II. The TV series Towards the Republic features Ma Shaohua as Sun Yat-sen. In the 100th anniversary tribute of the film 1911, Winston Chao played Sun. [134] In Space: Above and Beyond, one of the starships of the China Navy is named the Sun Yat-sen. [135]

Performances Edit

In 2010, a theatrical play Yellow Flower on Slopes ( 斜路黃花 ) was created and performed. [136] In 2011, there is also a Mandopop group called "Zhongsan Road 100" ( 中山路100號 ) known for singing the song "Our Father of the Nation" ( 我們國父 ). [137]

New Three Principles of the People Edit

At one time CPC general secretary and PRC president Jiang Zemin claimed that Sun Yat-sen advocated a movement known as the "New Three Principles of the People" ( 新三民主義 ) which consisted of "working with the soviets, working with the communists and helping the farmers" ( 聯俄, 聯共, 扶助工農 ). [138] [139] In 2001 Lily Sun said that the CPC was distorting Sun's legacy. She then voiced her displeasure in 2002 in a private letter to Jiang about the distortion of history. [138] In 2008 Jiang Zemin was willing to offer US$10 million to sponsor a Xinhai Revolution anniversary celebration event. Ifølge Ming Pao she could not take the money because she would no longer have the freedom to communicate about the revolution. [138] This concept is still currently available on Baike Baidu.

KMT emblem removal case Edit

In 1981, Lily Sun took a trip to Sun Yat-sen mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China. The emblem of the KMT had been removed from the top of his sacrificial hall at the time of her visit, but was later restored. On another visit in May 2011, she was surprised to find the four characters "General Rules of Meetings" ( 會議通則 ), a document that Sun wrote in reference to Robert's Rules of Order had been removed from a stone carving. [138]

Father of Independent Taiwan issue Edit

In November 2004, the ROC Ministry of Education proposed that Sun Yat-sen was not the father of Taiwan. Instead, Sun was a foreigner from mainland China. [140] Taiwanese Education minister Tu Cheng-sheng and Examination Yuan member Lin Yu-ti [zh] , both of whom supported the proposal, had their portraits pelted with eggs in protest. [141] At a Sun Yat-sen statue in Kaohsiung, a 70-year-old ROC retired soldier committed suicide as a way to protest the ministry proposal on the anniversary of Sun's birthday 12 November. [140] [141]


Sun Yat-Sen Revolt - History

Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) was the founder of the Kuomintang, a revolutionary group in China that ousted the Manchu or Qing dynasty from China and set up the Chinese Republic.

Tidligt liv

Sun was born into a peasant family in a village near the Canton (Guangdong) Province just after the Taiping uprising, which was a great civil war that sought to oust the Manchus and was, in the end, savagely put down by them. Sun grew up listening to the men around him who often spoke about their fight against the oppressive and corrupt Manchu dynasty. His worldview was widened when emigrant members of his family, including Sun Mei, his older brother, arranged for him to attend school in Honolulu and then in Hong Kong. These experiences spoke to Sun of the better life available in the West. He resolved to become a doctor and first studied at the Canton Medical College, which was run by Americans, and then at Hong Kong University. Both schools were filled with teachers and students passionately discussing the rising tide of European socialism and democracy.

Revolution

Filled with this new way of thinking, Sun soon became a leader. The Chinese who lived overseas supported him and he used their money to travel to Japan, the United States, Canada and Europe and write to every country where other Chinese were studying. In this way, scores of graduate students that returned to China to start their professions or enter military or civil service were influenced by Sun’s ideas. He also became known among the powerful of many countries in the West. He did this for the better part of 20 years. This is how his revolutionary group, the Kuomintang, was born.

By 1911, the revolutionaries who had studied abroad were strong enough to attempt to overthrow the Manchus. Ironically, Sun was not in the country when the revolution happened, but was lecturing in Denver, Colorado. It was there that he heard that part of the Hankow Garrison had risen up against the Manchus. Sun was not the only one surprised by the uprising. The United States’ President Taft had just loaned the Manchu government a great deal of money with the belief that it was durable. The revolt began as a protest against this loan and those feelings spread throughout the country.

Another thing that helped Sun’s revolution was the fact that the new Manchu Emperor was a baby and the Dowager Empress, who would have been in ruthless control, was dead. The revolutionary army felt free to demand that the imperial family abdicate, which they did. Sun went to London to ask the British government not to interfere in the revolution and to prevent the Japanese from interfering. In another irony, the dynasty that had been nurtured for years by the West was now defeated by western ideals.

The reaction of the United States was mixed. She welcomed Sun as a democrat, but she had been supporting the dynasty and was also uneasy.

Sun rushed home to China and his followers proclaimed him President at Nanking. However, the revolution was fairly shallow. Besides men everywhere cutting off their queues, which had been imposed by the Manchus, nothing much changed in Chinese life. Sun’s power rested mostly in the southern and central provinces, while Peking (now Beijing) and the central government were controlled by Yuan Shih-k’ai, one of the Manchus’ generals. Yuan, a man who knew how to take advantage of situations he could not control, told Sun that he could keep his revolution if he, Yuan, became president. He still had his army and foreigners supporting him. Sun resigned his presidency and withdrew to Canton.

1. verdenskrig

World War I broke out soon after this. The European powers were preoccupied and Yuan declared himself Emperor. Though the Chinese seemed indifferent to the revolution, they were not so indifferent as to want another dynasty so soon after the last one so they revolted. Yuan’s army was defeated, and he was soon dead. Though there was an attempt at imperial restoration in 1917 with Pu Yi, the child emperor, the Chinese rejected this as well.

Following World War I, China was essentially adrift. Each province seemed to be ruled by a warlord. China’s industrialists, who were suffering in the chaos, began to look more and more to Sun Yat Sen and his Kuomintang, who were still in Canton. Sun believed that the technically more advanced West could not only invest in China, but also help her set up a stable, democratic government. He believed that the situation would be beneficial to both China and the West. But, the United States and Britain did not trust him and rejected his offers.

The rejection of Sun by the United States and Britain caused Sun to turn to the newly born Soviet Union, who was willing to treat the Chinese as an equal. As the Soviets were just emerging from the Great War, they had no money but yet sent advisers to China. It was with Russia’s advice that the Kuomintang was changed into a coalition of like-minded revolutionaries who believed in freedom. The Chinese Communists were also admitted and political outreach was given to Chinese peasants.

Principles and Policies

Sun Yat Sen died in 1925. But before that, he left the Kuomintang the Three People’s Principles, a set of Three Great Policies and a Will. The Three Principles were national independence, democracy and improvement of the people’s livelihood. The Three Policies were anti-imperialism, cooperation with the Soviet Union, and encouragement of the workers’ and peasants movements. His will set up a plan for National Reconstruction which would set up a government that provided the four basic needs of the people of China for food, clothing, housing and transportation.

The First National Convention, held in 1924, had the Three People’s Principles and the Three Great Policies as its platform and provided terms of cooperation between the Communists and the Kuomintang.

Personlige liv

Sun Yat Sen was baptized a Christian in Hong Kong. In October of 1915, he married Soong Ching-Ling, who was the daughter of Charles Soong, who himself was a minister in the Methodist denomination. The marriage made Sun the brother-in-law of his protégé, Chiang Kai-shek, who married Ching-Ling’s sister after Sun’s death.


What were the Contribution of Sun Yat Sen in Chineses Revolution?

Sun Yat Sen played a prominent role in organising the revolution­aries of China. Though he was born in a poor family, he attained high education and later on adopted Christianity.

Sun Yat Sen and his supporters were extremely shocked by the defeat of China against France and they decided to uproot the useless Manchu government.

As Sun Yat Sen failed to get a job in the medical department, he shifted to Hawaii islands and got together an organisation of the Chinese immigrants.

It came to be known as Shing Chung Hui. With the help of this organisation he began to raise funds for the Chinese revolution. The Head Office of Shing Chung Hui was established in Hong Kong.

He organised a revolutionary army and planned to attack Canton but its conspiracy was exposed before it could be executed and Sun Yat Sen had to flee the country. He reached Japan after facing a lot of problems and then travelled to America and other countries.

Having come to know of socialist revolution he studied Das Kapital of Marx thoroughly and an influence of socialist thought became visible in his ideology.

Up to 1899 he remained as an immigrant in Japan and the people of China expressed interest in him but owing to the failure of Boxer revolution, he again achieved popularity and the Chinese began to be attracted by him.

Consequently, in spite of the suppression of the Boxer revolt, rebellions took place at several places under the leadership of Sun Yat Sen but they were crushed severely.

However, the name and fame of Sun Yat Sen spread far and wide. Dr. Sun Yat Sen has written in his autobiography.

“In 1895 people considered me a rebellious dacoit due to my failures but after the failure of 1900 people not only stopped to abuse me but the persons who were of advanced thoughts began to express their sympathy towards me seeing me in distress.

In fact, the youths of China were deeply influenced by the personality and patriotism of Sun Yat Sen.”


From “Memoirs of a Chinese Revolutionary”

  • Marie-Claire Bergère: Sun Yat-sen
  • Sun Yat-sen: The Three Principles of the People – San Min Chu I
  • ibid.: The International Development of China
  • Joseph W. Esherick, C.X. George Wei (edit.): China: How the Empire Fell

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