Hvilke faktorer bidrog til Koreas modernisering?

Hvilke faktorer bidrog til Koreas modernisering?


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Det eneste, jeg virkelig kan finde på, er den japanske besættelse. Frygtelig som det var, det hjalp den koreanske økonomi og vækst meget. Men jeg kan ikke finde andet at tilskrive dens modernisering, enhver hjælp ville blive værdsat meget.


For et par dage siden læste jeg en meget lang artikel om modernisering af Korea, men den er på portugisisk. Et resumé:

  • Den japanske besættelse spillede ikke en væsentlig rolle. De fleste af de japanske industrier var i nord, og Korea var altid et bilag, der supplerede varer til Japan, så de havde ikke komplette produktive kæder.
  • Korea modtog mange gratis penge fra USA på grund af sin strategiske position og Korea -krigen. Ikke lån med lav rente, men donationer.
  • Regeringen (et militærdiktatur bagt af USA det meste af tiden) foretog en radikal jordfordeling for at bryde magten i gamle oligarkier og fik de nye små landmænd til at betale tunge skatter for at finansiere store infrastrukturinvesteringer.
  • Regeringen undertrykte brutalt arbejderne, superudforskede proletariatet og gjorde prisen på Koreas eksport meget konkurrencedygtig.
  • Regeringen valgte nogle industrier til at modtage masser af penge (nogle af dem gratis) for at gå med til et meget ambitiøst projekt for industriens modernisering. De navne er velkendte i dag, LG, Samsung, Hyundai osv.

I midten af ​​firserne sluttede den kolde krig, og USA reducerede støttediktaturerne til at "bekæmpe kommunismen", så de gratis penge til Korea faldt meget, og regimet er mere demokratisk i dag, arbejderne har endda ret til at organisere sig, men Korea stadig nogle slags besat stat, ligesom tusinder af amerikanske soldater og de nationale styrker ikke kan foretage store operationer uden den amerikanske chefs samtykke.


Tak til Park Chung-hee. Han satte virkelig gang i moderniseringen af ​​den koreanske økonomi.

Japansk besættelse hjalp ikke med modernisering. Selvom besættelsen gav Park Chung-hee en mulighed for at vise sit talent. Han blev endda kaldt Takagi Masao og var en højtstående officer.

Han overførte derefter til det koreanske militærakademi og gjorde sig et navn. Han formidlede sin disciplin til den koreanske økonomi. Han tog store mængder bistand fra amerikanerne til gengæld for militær støtte i Vietnam og tilførte dermed nyt liv i økonomien.

Amerikanerne ville derimod etablere deres forretninger i Korea. Park Chung-hee nægtede imidlertid og gav i stedet incitamenter til lokale virksomheder. Det moderne LG, Samsung, Hyundai osv. Kaldes Chaebol. De havde en ydmyg oprindelse, nogle havde endda en historie med gangbanging eller spil. Men park Chung-hee tæmmede dem og opmuntrede dem til at blive store spillere. På denne måde gjorde han Korea til en eksportorienteret økonomi frem for en skraldespand med amerikanske varer. Dette satte ikke kun Korea på moderniseringens vej, det gjorde det hurtigt og fast.

Han var en modsætningsmand. Han var en beundrer af japansk kultur. Efter krigen blev han anklaget for kommunisme. Efter kuppet slog han aldrig ind på den amerikanske linje på trods af at han var deres største allierede i regionen.


Sydkoreas kultur

Sydkoreansk kultur udviklede sig fra den traditionelle koreanske kultur, der sporer sine rødder i de tidlige nomadestammer på den koreanske halvø. Kinesisk kultur har også betydeligt påvirket landets kultur. I dag har moderniseringen af ​​Sydkorea ændret befolkningens levevis. Mange aspekter af den koreanske kultur har også nået andre dele af kloden og er blevet populære deri.


En kort historie om Sydkoreas økonomi

Tilbage i tiden led Sydkorea, også kendt som Republikken Korea, store tab under Korea -krigen, der varede fra 1950 til 1953. Da krigen sluttede, var nationens økonomi i skam, infrastrukturen blev ødelagt, og der var stor afhængighed af amerikansk bistand.

Landets transformation fra fattigdom til velstand har imidlertid været fænomenal. Sydkorea blev en del af Organisationen for Økonomisk Samarbejde og Udvikling (OECD) i 1996. Siden har man ikke set tilbage, og i dag er det en hurtigt voksende, stærkt industrialiseret nation, der kan tjene som rollemodel for alle udviklingslande . En vigtig bidragyder i denne vækstproces er den innovationskultur, der hersker i Sydkorea, en atmosfære, der er venlig for investorer og ekstremt hjertelig med de fleste lande på det asiatiske marked.


Sprog

Stort set alle borgere i Nord- og Sydkorea er etniske koreanere og taler koreansk. Talt i over 5.000 år, blev det koreanske sprog første gang skrevet i midten af ​​det femtende århundrede, da kong Sejong opfandt det fonetisk baserede alfabet kendt som hangul ("den store skrift"). Kongen skabte alfabetet, så alle koreanske mennesker, ikke kun aristokratiet, der kendte kinesiske tegn, kunne lære at læse og skrive. Som et resultat har både Nord- og Sydkorea blandt de højeste læsefærdigheder i verden.

Mens de fleste anden- og tredje generations koreanske immigranter udelukkende taler engelsk, ved nye immigranter ofte lidt eller intet engelsk. Som tiden går, begynder de at lære nødvendige engelske sætninger. De tidligste koreanske immigranter på Hawaii lærte en form for engelsk kendt som pidgin -engelsk, der inkorporerede sætninger på engelsk, kinesisk, japansk, koreansk, filippinsk og portugisisk - alle sprog, der tales af de forskellige etniske grupper, der arbejder på plantagerne. At lære engelsk er afgørende for nye immigranter, der håber at blive succesfulde medlemmer af det større amerikanske samfund. Alligevel håber de fleste koreanske amerikanske forældre også at bevare deres arv ved at sende deres amerikanskfødte børn til koreanske sprogskoler.

Flere amerikanske universiteter tilbyder bachelor-, kandidat- og ph.d. -programmer på koreansk sprog og koreanske studier. Disse universiteter omfatter Brigham Young University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, University of Hawaii, Manoa og University of Washington, Seattle.

HILSEN OG ANDRE FÆLLES UTTRYK

De følgende hilsner oversættes fonetisk fra hangul alfabet i henhold til McCune-Reischauer System of Romanization: Annyonghasipnigga - Hej (formel hilsen) Yoboseyo - Hej (uformel hilsen) Annyonghi kasipsio -Farvel (bliver) Annyonghi kyeshipsio -Farvel (forlader) Put'akhamnida -Vær venlig Komapsumnida - Tak skal du have Ch'onmaneyo -Selv tak Sillyehamnida -Undskyld mig Ye -Ja Aniyo -Ingen Sehae og pok mani padu sipsiyo! -Godt nytår! Mand sagde ! - Hurra! Længe leve vores land! Ti tusinde år! Kuh reh ! - Sådan er det! Sand!


Hvilke faktorer bidrog til Koreas modernisering? - Historie

Da Japan overgav sig til de allierede ved slutningen af ​​Anden Verdenskrig, bragte det flere andre relaterede hændelser med sig, en som ikke var relateret, og som ikke sås til at komme, var inddelingen af ​​Korea i Nordkorea (Demokraternes folkerepublik Korea) og Sydkorea (republikken Korea). Da krigen var ved at være slut, var både USA og Sovjetunionen nået til enighed om, at de ville acceptere Japans overgivelse i Korea.

Dette ville forlade Sovjetunionen, der indtog Korea nord for den 38. parallelle linje, og USA ville indtage landet syd for den 38. parallelle linje. Dette var den aftale, der blev indgået, og den skulle forblive i kraft, indtil landet kunne nå til enighed og blive enige om en form for samlet regeringsform for at besætte hele landet.

Ændring af vilkår

Det var de aftaler, der blev indgået af USA og Sovjetunionen. Men i 1947 førte den kolde krig, der var opstået mellem USA og Sovjet, samt de politiske forskelle mellem koreanske borgere i både nord og syd, ud over andre spørgsmål og besættelsesstyrker, alle til sammenbrud i kommunikation og aftaler, der havde fundet sted tidligere. I august 1948 blev der anlagt en pro -amerikansk regering i Seoul, og en pro -sovjetunion blev oprettet i Pyongyang.

Den 38. parallelle opdeling

Det faktum, at både USA og de sovjetiske repræsentanter hævdede, at de var den legitime repræsentative styreform for det koreanske folk som helhed. Dette skabte spændinger langs den 38. parallel, som var linjen, der delte den nordlige og den sydlige grænse (kontrolleret af henholdsvis USA og Sovjetunionen).

Den 25. juni 1950 gjorde Nordkorea (støttet af Sovjetunionen) et forsøg på at forene grænsen ved kraftige angreb. På den anden side ledte USA med hjælp fra FN en koalition af flere lande, der kom til at hjælpe Sydkorea. I den anden ende bakkede Sovjetunionen op om Nordkoreas styrker ved at tilbyde bistand hvad angår våben og finanser, og Folkerepublikken Kina hjalp også Nord ved at give dem tusindvis af tropper til at kæmpe sammen med Norden Koreanske militærstyrker under hele krigen.

Juli 1953

Dette markerede afslutningen på Koreakrigen. Grundlæggende endte tingene som de var startet, og tusinder af liv blev taget, kun for at få nationen tilbage til det sted, den var, før krigen brød ud. Ud over de tabte liv var der masser af fysisk ødelæggelse, der fandt sted for byer, virksomheder, boliger og andre faciliteter langs grænsen til den 38. parallel, hvilket forårsagede en hel del økonomisk byrde for alle parter, der var involveret i prøvelser.

Nordkorea og Sydkorea forblev lige opdelt langs den 38. parallel, og der blev ikke foretaget reelle ændringer eller større ændringer i territorierne eller hvilken del af kontrollen hver side havde over landet. Siderne blev blokeret af våbenhvile -linjen, (den demilitariserede zone – eller DMZ), som den dag i dag er skillelinjen mellem Nordkoreas og Sydkoreas grænser.

Samfundsmæssige forskelle

Siden delingen af ​​Korea i 1953 er både Nord- og Sydkorea blevet til radikalt forskellige nationer, selvom begge stammer fra samme baggrund og kultur. Nord- og Sydkorea har ekstremt forskellige politiske synspunkter og regeringsorganer i kontrol, og økonomiske og finansielle forhold på begge sider er også ganske forskellige for begge sider. De forskelle, der stammer mellem landene i dag, har lidt at gøre med det, der skete før 1945 under krigen, og er mere baseret på indflydelsen fra USA og Sovjetunionen, som havde ansvaret for operationerne i flere år i nord og sydlige grænser. Nordkorea er påvirket af Sovjetunionen og deres måde at styre, kultur og politik på og følger også visse regeringsbaserede koncepter og ideer fra Kina. Sydkorea på den anden side har været stærkt påvirket af USA og i nogle dele Japans regering efter et demokratisk samfund, og en der giver folket mere stemme end centralregeringen i Nordkorea.

Indførelse af Split

Opdelingen af ​​Korea i Nordkorea og Sydkorea blev tvunget på befolkningen af ​​eksterne styrker, regeringer og magter, som det koreanske folk ikke havde noget at sige til. Selvom det tidligere Korea stadig er delt, og både Nord og Syd har en række politiske spørgsmål og forskelle, mener befolkningen i Korea, at Nord- og Sydkorea en dag bliver nødt til at genforenes.

Tidligt i 1970'erne, midten af ​​1980'erne og begyndelsen af ​​1990'erne syntes nationerne at være ved at komme til en slags aftale og genforening af nationen, men med hvert forsøg på at genforene landet var hver side uvillig til at indgå visse kompromiser og indgå visse ændringer, som de ikke fandt den modsatte regeringsform, var det rigtige valg for folket som helhed.

I 2000, første gang et topmøde nogensinde fandt sted, satte ledere i Nord- og Sydkorea sig ned i et forsøg på at diskutere, hvilke aftaler der kunne opnås, og hvad der ville være til gavn for alle borgere, militære og nation som helhed i Korea. Selvom dette fik folket til at tro, at der var muligheder for genforening, siden topmødet har der været meget lidt kommunikation og endnu mindre enighed og indsats fra regeringerne i Nordkorea og Sydkorea.

Selvom delingen af ​​Korea stammer flere år tilbage, er det i dag muligvis den mest delte nation. Med ekstreme forskelle i politik, regering og rettigheder for sine borgere har Nordkorea og Sydkorea ganske få forskelle og varierer meget i den måde, hvorpå folket styres.


Hvorfor Koreakrigen var en af ​​de dødeligste krige i moderne historie

Det er svært at forsøge at følge med udviklingen i den seneste runde med sabelratter mellem USA og Nordkorea. USAs præsident Donald Trump og den koreanske "øverste leder" Kim Jong-un har gentagne gange handlet med verbale modhager via Twitter og mere formelle veje midt i nyhederne om flådeomlægninger, massive live-artilleriøvelser, FN-fordømmelser og rygter om troppebevægelser fra regionale magter.

USA ville have en åbenlys og klar fordel i forhold til Nordkorea i et direkte militært engagement. Det betyder ikke, at en krig ikke ville være en opslidende og dyr indsats. Nordkoreas militær er forfalden og forældet, men det er stadig en af ​​de største militærer i verden. Da de to lande stødte sammen før, fra 1950 til 1953, endte konflikten med en virtuel uafgjort langs den 38. parallel.

Selvfølgelig spillede de hundredtusinder af soldater, Kina sendte for at redde sin nordkoreanske allierede, en afgørende rolle i dette resultat, men den koreanske folkehær selv førte en formidabel kamp mod de meget mere magtfulde USA og dets allierede. KPA påførte betydelige tab i et blitzkrieg-lignende angreb gennem syd og beslaglagde hurtigt enorme områder, hvilket tvang USA til at gennemføre en politik med svedjord, der påførte et enormt dødsfald.

Per capita var Koreakrigen en af ​​de dødeligste krige i moderne historie, især for civilbefolkningen i Nordkorea. Ødelæggelsens omfang chokerede og afskyede det amerikanske militærpersonale, der var vidne til det, herunder nogle, der havde kæmpet i de mest forfærdelige kampe under Anden Verdenskrig.

Anden Verdenskrig var langt den mest blodige krig i historien. Estimater af dødstallet spænder fra 60 millioner til mere end 85 millioner, hvoraf nogle tyder på, at tallet faktisk er endnu højere, og at 50 millioner civile kan være omkommet alene i Kina. Selv de lavere estimater ville tegne sig for omtrent tre procent af verdens anslåede befolkning på 2,3 milliarder i 1940.

Det er svimlende tal, og dødeligheden under Korea -krigen var sammenlignelig med, hvad der skete i de hårdest ramte lande under Anden Verdenskrig.

Flere faktorer bidrog til de høje tabstal. Den koreanske halvø er tæt befolket. Hurtigt skiftende frontlinjer efterlod ofte civile fanget i kampzoner. Begge sider begik adskillige massakrer og udførte massehenrettelser af politiske fanger. Moderne fly gennemførte en omfattende bombekampagne, der tabte massive mængder napalm sammen med standardbomber.

Faktisk ved USA's afslutning af krigen havde USA og dets allierede smidt flere bomber på den koreanske halvø, det overvældende flertal af dem på Nordkorea, end de havde i hele Pacific Theatre under Anden Verdenskrig.

"Den fysiske ødelæggelse og tab af liv på begge sider var næsten uforståelig, men Norden led den større skade på grund af amerikansk mætningsbombning og den brændte jordpolitik fra de tilbagetrækende FN-styrker," skrev historiker Charles K. Armstrong i et essay til Asia-Pacific Journal.

»Det amerikanske luftvåben anslog, at Nordkoreas ødelæggelse var forholdsmæssigt større end Japans under Anden Verdenskrig, hvor USA havde forvandlet 64 større byer til murbrokker og brugt atombomben til at ødelægge to andre. Amerikanske fly smed 635.000 tons bomber mod Korea - det vil sige hovedsageligt i Nordkorea - inklusive 32.557 tons napalm, sammenlignet med 503.000 tons bomber, der blev kastet i hele stillehavsteatret under Anden Verdenskrig. ”

Som Armstrong forklarer, resulterede dette i næsten ødelæggelse uden sidestykke.

”Antallet af koreanske døde, sårede eller savnede ved krigens afslutning nærmede sig tre millioner, ti procent af den samlede befolkning. Størstedelen af ​​de dræbte var i nord, som havde halvdelen af ​​befolkningen i syd, selvom Nordkorea ikke har officielle tal, muligvis blev tolv til femten procent af befolkningen dræbt i krigen, et tal tæt på eller overgår andelen af sovjetiske borgere dræbt i anden verdenskrig. ”

Amerikanske officerer og soldater, der undersøgte resultaterne af luftkampagnen i Korea, var både forfærdede og oprørske. I sin kontroversielle bog Soldat samler oberstløjtnant Anthony Herbert refleksioner over blodbadet fra Amerikas mest fremtrædende generaler på dagen.

"Vi brændte næsten alle byer i Nordkorea og Sydkorea begge," mindede general Curtis LeMay. "Vi dræbte over en million civile koreanere og kørte flere millioner flere fra deres hjem, med de uundgåelige ekstra tragedier, der ville følge."

LeMay var ingen tilflytter i krigens rædsler. Han ledede flere B-17 Flying Fortress-bombeangreb dybt ind i tysk område, inden han fortsatte med at kommandere den strategiske bombekampagne mod Japan, herunder brandbomberne i Tokyo.

En anden dekoreret veteran fra Anden Verdenskrig, luftvåbnets firestjernede general Emmett E. "Rosie" O'Donnell, Jr., der senere tjente som chef for Pacific Air Forces fra 1959 til 1963, samarbejdede LeMays og Armstrongs vurderinger.

”Jeg vil sige, at hele, næsten hele den koreanske halvø er et frygteligt rod. Alt er ødelagt, ”sagde O'Donnell. "Der er intet tilbage, der står værdigt navnet."

Måske den mest voldsomme beretning om ødelæggelsen kom fra general Douglas MacArthur.

MacArthur var blevet en nationalhelt for sine bedrifter som chef for de amerikanske hærstyrker i Fjernøsten under Filippinernes kampagne under Anden Verdenskrig og som øverstkommanderende for de allierede magter under besættelsen af ​​Japan, før han blev udnævnt til øverstkommanderende i Chef for FN's kommando ved begyndelsen af ​​den koreanske konflikt.

På trods af sin lange og store karriere som officer begyndte han at stikke hoveder med Pres. Harry Truman om, hvordan krigen i Korea blev ført. Dette førte til, at Truman befriede ham fra sin kommando den 11. april 1951. MacArthur vidnede efterfølgende ved fælles høringer for Senatets udvalg for væbnede tjenester og komité for udenrigsforbindelser for at drøfte hans afskedigelse og "Militære situation i Fjernøsten".

"Jeg krymper - jeg krymper med en rædsel, som jeg ikke kan udtrykke med ord - ved denne kontinuerlige slagtning af mænd i Korea," beklagede MacArthur under høringerne.

»Krigen i Korea har allerede næsten ødelagt den nation på 20.000.000 mennesker. Jeg har aldrig set sådan en ødelæggelse. Jeg har vist set lige så meget blod og katastrofe som enhver levende mand, og det stødte bare på min mave sidste gang jeg var der. Efter at jeg så på vraget og de tusinder af kvinder og børn og alting, kastede jeg op ... Hvis du fortsætter på ubestemt tid, foreviger du en slagtning, som jeg aldrig har hørt om i menneskehedens historie. ”

Hverken Nordkorea eller USA har nogensinde været i stand til virkelig at affinde sig med den ødelæggelse, der skete under konflikten.

I Nordkorea omtales krigen ofte som den sejrrige faderlands befrielseskrig, hvor den koreanske folkehær blev kastet som den tapre beskytter af det dydige koreanske folk i lyset af amerikansk imperialisme. Nordkoreanske tab og grusomheder - såvel som den amerikanske strategiske bombekampagne - nedtones eller ignoreres, mens sejre ofte overdrives. Denne revisionistiske historie falder i tråd med den "store leder" personlighedskult, der blev bekendtgjort af Kim Il-sung og hans arvinger, der har ledet landet siden krigens slutning.

I USA er krigen noget tabt i skyggen af ​​Anden Verdenskrig og Vietnamkrigen. Det skete, da amerikanerne stadig var ved at komme sig efter førstnævnte og var til sammenligning en meget mindre og kortere konflikt. Det manglede mediedækning og kulturel indvirkning af den langvarige krig i Vietnam. Dens arv blev også ødelagt af en overvægt af grusomheder - nogle af dem udført af USA og dets allierede - og hvad der i hovedet på mange amerikanere i sidste ende udgjorde et nederlag af en mindre og svagere fjende.

Det var først i 1999, at USA erkendte - efter en langvarig undersøgelse fra Associated Press - at et brev fra USA's ambassadør John J. Muccio fra 1950 bemyndigede befalingsmænd på området til at vedtage en politik med åbent massakring af civile.

Politikken førte til massakrer i blandt andet No Gun Ri og Pohang, hvor amerikanske soldater og søfolk bevidst affyrede civile. Flygtninge, der flygtede fra Nordkorea, var særligt modtagelige for angreb fra de amerikanske og sydkoreanske militærer under påstand om, at nordkoreanske soldater havde infiltreret deres antal for at orkestrere snige strejker. Hundreder ad gangen blev dræbt, mange af dem kvinder og børn.

”Vi har lige udslettet dem,” fortalte Norman Tinkler, en tidligere maskingevær, senere til Associated Press om massakren på No Gun Ri.

Edward L. Daily, en anden soldat til stede ved No Gun Ri, var stadig hjemsøgt af det, han var vidne til der årtier senere.

”På sommernætter, hvor vinden blæser, kan jeg stadig høre deres råb, de små børn skrige,” tilstod Daily. ”Kommandoen så på det som at slippe af med problemet på den nemmeste måde. Det var for at skyde dem i en gruppe. ”

I et opfølgende interview med The New York Times sagde Daily, at han ikke kunne bekræfte, hvor mange koreanere, de dræbte den dag-op til 400 er et almindeligt skøn-men tilføjede: "[W] e endte med at skyde derind, indtil alle kroppe, vi så, var livløse. ”


6 Klimaændringer


Mange eksperter hævder, at klimaændringer, ikke lopper og skadedyr, var den fremtrædende synder for den sorte døds dødelighed. Uanset om det var den vigtigste faktor, havde det bestemt en rolle. Pandemiens begyndelse faldt sammen med afslutningen på den middelalderlige varme periode, en æra med varmere somre og mildere vintre, der varede fra omkring 900 til 1300. Perioden tillod flere rigelige høst og gjorde mennesker mindre modtagelige for sygdom.

Forskere har fastslået, at denne milde vejrtrækning var forårsaget af en ændring af den globale varmefordeling gennem ændringer i tryksystemer. Normaliseringen af ​​disse systemer skubbede meget af den nordlige halvkugle tilbage til en køligere, mere regnfuld periode, hvilket førte til lavere afgrødeudbytter og kolde, våde forhold, der efterlod folk vidt og bredt modne til pesten. [5]


Bemærkninger:

*1 John W. Hall, 'Changing Conception of Modernization of Japan', red. Marius B. Jansen, skiftende japanske holdninger mod modernisering, 1965, Princeton Univ. Tryk på, s.19.

*2 Kiyomi Morioka, `Industrialisering og Shinto, 'red. Organisationskomité for den anden internationale konference for Shinto, kontinuitet og forandring i Shinto, 1968, Institut for japansk kultur og klassikere, Kokugakuin Univ.

*3 Kunio Yanaghita, Senzo no Hanashi (The Tales of Ancestors), i The Collected Works of Yanaghita Kunio, bind. 19, 1962, Chikuma-Shobo, Tokyo.

*4 Josefa M. Saniel, `Mobilisering af traditionelle værdier i moderniseringen af ​​Japan ', red. Robert Bellah, Religion og fremskridt i det moderne Asien, 1965, Free Press, New York.


Hvilke faktorer bidrog til Koreas modernisering? - Historie

Koreansk litteratur er normalt kronologisk opdelt i en klassisk og en moderne periode. Men grundlaget for en sådan opdeling er stadig i tvivl. Store reformer fejede Korea efter midten af ​​1800-tallet, da dets samfund aktivt absorberede vestlige ting.

Koreas klassiske litteratur udviklede sig på baggrund af det koreanske folks traditionelle folkelige overbevisning, det var også påvirket af taoisme, konfucianisme og buddhisme. Blandt disse havde buddhistisk indflydelse størst betydning, efterfulgt af enorme påvirkninger fra konfucianisme - især sangkonfucianisme - i Choson -perioden.

Moderne litteratur i Korea udviklede sig derimod ud af sin kontakt med den vestlige kultur efter moderniseringsforløbet. Ikke kun kristen tanke, men også forskellige kunstneriske tendenser og påvirkninger blev importeret fra Vesten. Efterhånden som "New Education" og "National Language and Literature Movement" udviklede sig, mistede det kinesiske skriftsystem, der traditionelt havde repræsenteret den dominerende klasses kultur, den sociokulturelle funktion, det tidligere havde haft. På samme tid, det koreanske skrift, Han-gul blev brugt mere og oftere, hvilket resulterede i vækst og udvikling af koreanske sprog- og litteraturstudier. Med fremkomsten af ​​den "nye roman" (shinsosol) kom en stigning i romaner skrevet i koreansk skrift. Musik og klassisk poesi, tidligere smeltet sammen i en slags sang kaldet ch'anggok, blev nu betragtet som separate bestræbelser. Nye veje åbnede sig for den nye litteratur. Mens Korea importerede vestlig kultur via Japan eller Kina, gennemførte det også litterære reformer indefra.

Sprogligt udtryk og formidlingsmåde er spørgsmål af største betydning for den overordnede forståelse af koreansk litteratur. Koreansk litteratur strækker sig over et bredt område: litteratur registreret på kinesisk og litteratur skrevet i Han-gul. Disse to aspekter af koreansk litteratur adskiller sig meget fra hinanden med hensyn til deres litterære former og karakter.

Koreansk litteratur på kinesisk blev oprettet, da kinesiske tegn blev bragt til Korea. Fordi kinesiske tegn er en kinesisk opfindelse, har der været tider i Koreas historie, hvor man forsøgte at udelukke litteratur skrevet på kinesisk fra parametrene for, hvad der udgør koreansk litteratur. Men i Koryo- og Choson -kulturer var kinesiske bogstaver centrale i koreanernes dagligdag. Vi kan heller ikke overse, at den dominerende klasses litterære aktivitet blev udført på kinesisk. Mens kinesisk -centrerede ideer og værdier er indeholdt i denne litteratur - en funktion, der deles af det meste af Østasien i denne periode - indeholder de også oplevelser og tankemønstre, der udtrykker det koreanske folks unikke livsstil.

Brugen af ​​det koreanske skrift begyndte i Choson -perioden med oprettelsen af ​​det koreanske alfabet (Hunmin Chong-um). Oprettelsen af ​​det koreanske alfabet i 1400 -tallet var et afgørende vendepunkt i Koreas litteraturhistorie. Sammenlignet med litteraturen skrevet på kinesisk, der var domineret af overklassen, muliggjorde koreansk skrift udvidelsen af ​​det litterære felt til at omfatte kvinder og almindelige. Dette udvidede det sociale grundlag for koreanske forfattere og læsere. Det koreanske skrift (Han-gul) overtog først sin plads af førende betydning i koreansk litteratur i sidste halvdel af 1800 -tallet. Efter oplysningstiden faldt brugen af ​​kinesiske bogstaver hurtigt, og populariteten af ​​koreanske bogstaver steg stærkt. Så snart den sproglige dualitet af "kinesisk" og "indfødt" i det koreanske liv blev overvundet, blev litteratur i det koreanske skrift det fundament, som den nationale litteratur udviklede sig på.

Det Hyangga poesi fra Shilla -perioden signalerede begyndelsen på en unik poetisk form i koreansk litteratur. Det Hyangga blev optaget i hyangch'al script, hvor det koreanske sprog blev skrevet ved hjælp af & quotsound & quot (øh) og & quotbetydning & quot (hun) af kinesiske tegn. Fjorten digte i Hyangga stil fra Shilla -perioden er bevaret i Samguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms). Denne poetiske form blev overført til Koryo -dynastiet, og 11 digte fra den periode er bevaret i Kyunyojon (Fortællinger om Kyunyo). Når vi observerer formen af ​​de eksisterende digte, ser vi en række formelle egenskaber: 4-linje, 8-linje og 10-linje digte. De 4 liniedigte har karakter af folkeballader eller børnesange. De 10-linje digte, med den mest udviklede poetiske struktur, er opdelt i tre sektioner af 4-4-2.

Det er svært at foretage generelle afgørelser om personligheden i Hyangga digtere. Men det menes, at digte med 4 linjer med deres ballade-lignende egenskaber kan indikere, at digterne kom fra en lang række baggrunde. De fleste af de 10-linje digte blev skrevet af præster som Ch'ung Tamsa, Wol Myongsa, Yung Ch'sonsa, Yongjae og Kyunyo, de blev også komponeret af Hwarang (& quotflower warriors & quot), herunder Duk Ogok og Shin Chung. Disse krigere var rygraden i Shilla -aristokratiet. De 10 linjer lange digte afspejler aristokraternes følelser og deres religiøse bevidsthed. Blandt de Hyangga, Sodong-yo (Balladen om Sodong) er kendetegnet ved sin enkle naivitet Chemangmaega (Sang om ofre til en afdød søster) og Ch'an-gip'arangga (Song in Praise of Kip'arang) prale af en suveræn episk teknik og give et fint udtryk til en sublim poetisk ånd. Disse eksempler er derfor anerkendt som de mest repræsentative for Hyangga poesi.

Koryo -periodens litteratur er præget af en øget brug af kinesiske bogstaver, forsvinden af Hyangga, og fremkomsten af ​​Koryo kayo (Koryo -sange), der fortsat blev transmitteret som mundtlig litteratur indtil Choson -perioden. Transmissionen af Hyangga litteratur om Shilla blev fortsat indtil den tidlige del af Koryo, men som i de elleve vers af Kyunyos Pohyon shipchung wonwangga (Sange om de ti løfter i Samantabhadra), disse var for det meste religiøse bønner uden sekulær eller kunstnerisk smag.

Den nye poetiske form introduceret af forfattere fra Koryo -perioden var Koryo kayo hedder pyolgok. Identiteterne for de fleste af Koryo kayo forfattere er ukendte. Sangene blev først sendt oralt senere i Choson -perioden, hvor de blev indspillet ved hjælp af det koreanske script (Han-gul). Denne poesi har to former: & quotshort-strofe-formen & quot (tallyonch'e), hvor hele værket er struktureret i en enkelt strofe og & quotextended form & quot (yonjangch'e), hvor værket er opdelt i mange strofer. Chong Kwajonggok (Sangen om Chong Kwajong) og Samogok (Song of Maternal Love) er eksempler på kortstrofeformen, men den mere repræsentative Koryo kayo, herunder Ch'nongsan pyolgok (Song of Green Mountain), Sogyong pyolgok (Sangen om den vestlige hovedstad [P'yongyang]), Tongdong og Ssanghwajom (Twin Flower Shops), er alle skrevet i udvidet form og opdelt i alt fra fire til tretten strofer.

Koryo Kayo er kendetegnet ved øget længde og en fri og udisciplineret form. Sangenes dristige, direkte karakter gør dem særprægede. De beskæftiger sig med menneskehedens virkelige verden. But because the songs were transmitted orally over a long period and recorded only after the beginning of the Choson period, there is a strong possibility that they have been partially altered.

The creation of the Korean alphabet in the early Choson period was one of the turning points in the history of Korean literature. In the process of creating the Korean alphabet (Han-gul) and investigating its practicality, akchang (musical scores) were written in the Korean script, such as Yongbioch'bon-ga (Songs of Flying Dragons Through the Heavens) which celebrates the foundation of the Choson Dynasty(1392-1910), and which is complete with musical notation and instrumentation. These were written by the Hall of Worthies (Chiphyonjon) scholars who served the court officials. King Sejong also wrote Worin Ch'on-gangjigok (Songs of the Moon Lighting the Rivers of the Earth), a compilation in song of the life history of the Sakyamuni (Gautama Buddha), extolling praise for the Buddha's grace. These series of poems were written in forms that had not existed in previous ages. They provided a great stimulus in the development of poetic literature.

Det shijo ("current tune") is representative of Choson period poetry. Its poetic form was established in the late Koryo period, but it flourished to a greater extent under the Choson period's new leading ideology, Song Neo-Confucianism. The fact that a majority of the shijo poets were well versed in Confucianism, and that these poems of the late Koryo and early Choson periods for the most part dealt with the theme of loyalty, helps us to understand the historical function of the shijo.

Det shijo has a simple, three-stanza structure: first, middle and last. Its three-stanza form is related to the structure of its poetic meaning, a fundamental requisite which prescribes its formal aesthetic. It is constructed in four feet, with each line containing three-to-four syllables, to make a total of about 12 feet. It is characterized by moderation in form and a slow, leisurely elegance. Despite its formal simplicity, its expressions are poetic and the poems achieve an esthetic wholeness. To this end, we may suppose that the shijo was widely loved by both the commoners and the yangban(gentry) class.

Centered around such authors as Maeng Sa-song, Yi Hyon-bo, Yi Hwang and Yi I, the shijo of the early Choson period represented "natural literature," or kangho kayo, in which Confucian ideals were expressed using themes from nature. Following the style of Chong Ch'iol, Yun Son-do and others, the greatest shijo poets of their time, there emerged in the later Choson period poets like Kim Ch'mon-t'aek and Kim Su-jang who paved the way for the creation of new kind of poetry which incorporated elements of satire and humor. Collections of shijo were also compiled, such as Ch'eonggu yong-on (Enduring Poetry of Korea) by Kim Ch' on-t'aek and Haedong kayo (Songs of Korea) by Kim Su-jang.

In the late Choson period, sasol shijo ("current tunes explained in words") were developed to give simple form to the unaffected emotions of the commoners. Det sasol shijo departs from the form of the original three-stanza p'yong ("flat") shijo, in which the middle and final stanzas are arranged into four feet, and is characterized by increased length. Hence, the sasol shijo is also called the changhyong ("long form") shijo.

Det sasol shijo is distinct from the moderate from of the p'yong shijo in that it pursues a free and undisciplined form, and expresses the joys and sorrows of the commoners, as well as satirizes reality, making it comical.

It is said that the kasa og shijo make up the two greatest forms of the Choson period poetry. Det kasa is properly placed in the category of verse, but its content is not limited to the expression of individual sentiment. It often includes moral admonitions, and the subjects regarding "the weariness of travel" and "grief." The kasa form is a simple verse form, with a "twin" set of feet of three to four syllables each, which are repeated four times. Because of the varying nature of its contents, there are some who view the kasa as a kind of essay, as in early Choson period kasa like Chong Kuk-in's Sangch'un-gok (Tune in Praise of Spring) Song Sun's Myonangjongga (Song of Myonangjong Pavilion) and Chong Ch'iol's Kwandong pyolgok (Song of Kwandong), Samiin-gok (Song in Recollections of a Beautiful Woman) and Songsan pyolgok (Song of Mt. Songsan), and so on. Disse kasa have, as their main subject matter, the following themes: contemplation of nature for spiritual enlightenment the virtues of the great gentleman who espouses anbin nakto (being content in poverty and delighting in following the Way) and the metaphor of love between a man and a woman to express loyalty between sovereign and subject. Later, following Pak Il-lo's Sonsangt'an (Lament on Shipboard) and Nuhangsa (Words of the Streets), we find in the late Koryo period kasa themes like "travel abroad" as in Kim In-gyom's Iltong chang-yuga (Song of a Glorious Voyage to the East of the Sun) and Hong Sun-hak's Yonhaengga. Also, there were the naebang kasa (kasa of the women's quarters) written by women. These gained wide popularity. In particular, the kasa of the latter period underwent changes in form, becoming both longer and prosaic.

The first appearance of the classical fiction in Korea include Kim Shi-sup's Kumo shinhwa (Tales of Kumo) which was written in Chinese characters and Ho Kyun's Hong Kil-tong chon (Tale of Hong Kil-tong) written in Han-gul. After the turn of the 17th century, fictions like tale of Kumo shinhwa came to be even more actively produced, and a large-scale readership was formed at that time. Especially popular was the p'ansori (story-in-song), which appeared in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. A performance art, the p'ansori is rooted in heightened musical expressiveness. As its contents were "fictionalized" it also made great contributions to the development of the classical fiction. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the quality of these classical fictions increased in variety as well as in quantity. Also, book rental business thrived with the advent of commercial publishing .

The characters appearing in Kumo shinhwa embody the concept of chaejagain ("talented young man and beautiful woman"). It also employs to an extreme degree the style of aesthetic expression used in Chinese letters. Along with these characteristics, Kumo shinhwa also shows aspects of the mysterious fiction (chon-gisosol) in that its contents are of a mysterious nature and distant from reality. In the mid-Choson period, works with parable-like characteristics were published, such as Im Je's Susongji (Record of Grief) and Yun Kye-son's Talch'on mongnyurok (Record of a Dream Adventure to Talch'on). But with the coming of the late Choson period, authors like Pak Chi-won and Yi E Ok wrote realistic fictions in Chinese. Pak Chi-won's Hosaengjon (The Tale of Scholar Ho), Yangbanjon (A Yangban Tale), Hojil (The Tiger's Roar) and Yi's Shimsaengjon (Tale of Scholar Shim), for example, all depart from the orthodox conventions of classical Chinese literary studies and introduce a variety of characters such as merchants, men of wealth, thieves and kisaeng (female entertainers). They are sharply critical of a manifold social problems and often ridicule various aspects of daily life. This kind of fiction, together with the fiction in Han-gul of the later Choson period, opened up new paths for fiction writing.

After the creation of the Korean alphabet, an abundance of fictions were written in Han-gul, beginning with Ho Kyun's Hong Kil-tong chon and including works like Kim Man-jung's Kuunmong (Dream of the Nine Clouds) and Sassi namjonggi (Record of Lady Sa's Southward Journey). Hong Kil-tong chon strongly opposes the ruling class' discrimination of children born of the union between a yangban and a concubine. It shows a high level of social concern and criticizes the absurd aspects of the everyday reality of the times.

In the late Choson period, the p'ansori fiction (p'ansori gye sosol) emerged, based on the orally transmitted art form. P'ansori fictions like Ch'unhyangjon (Tale of Ch'un-hyang), Shimch'oongjon (Tale of Shimch'yong), and Hungbujon (Tale of Hungbu) do not deal with superhuman characters, but make use of human stereotypes of the period. Most of these fictions center around casual relationships from real-life experience, rather than coincidence. In addition to being a mixture of verse and prose, the writing style also combines refined classical language and the vigorous slang and witticisms of the common people. Throughout these works, we are given a broad picture of the social life of the late Choson period. In addition to these works, other Choson period fictions record the private affairs of the court, such as Inhyon Wanghujon (Tale of Queen Inhyon) and Hanjungnok (Record of Leisurely Feelings).

Korean modern literature was formed against the background of the crumbling feudalistic society of the Choson Dynasty, the importation of new ideas from the West, and the new political reality of rising Japanese imperial power in East Asia. The first stage in the establishment of Korea's modern literature extends from the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, and is designated as the literature of the Enlightenment (kaehwa kyemong) period.

The change from traditional to modern literature during the Enlightenment period was largely due to the effects of the New Education and the Korean Language and Literature movement. Efter Kabo Reforms of 1894, a new brand of education was enforced, new Western-style schools were established, and new textbooks for teaching Western knowledge were published. The literature of the Enlightenment Period secured its social base through newly emerged media like newspapers. Most newspapers, including the Tongnip Shinmun (The Independent), Hwangsong Shinmun (The Imperial City Newspaper), Taehan maeil Shinbo (Korean Daily News), Cheguk Shinmun (Imperial Newspaper), Mansebo (The Forever Report), Taehan minbo (The Korean People's Report) all published serial novels, as well as shijo, og kasa. It was at this time that a class of professional writers also began to form. Commercial publishing of literary works became possible with the introduction of new printing techniques and the emergence of publishing companies.

In this period, the ch'angga (new type of song) and the shinch'eshi (new poetry) were hailed as the new poetic forms. They contributed greatly to the formation of the modern chayushi (free verse poem). Receiving their influence from free verse poetry, the shinch'eshi abandoned the fixed meter of traditional poetry, thus making new genres possible in poems like Ch'oe Nam-son's Hae egeso sonyon ege (From the Sea to the Youth) (1908), Kkot tugo (Laying Down the Flowers) and T'aebaeksan shi (Poems of Mt. T'aebaeksan). But despite the novelty of the new forms, there were also many instances where the poetic voice was politicized, a sharp contrast to the lyric poetry of old, which gave primary expression to individual sentiment and feeling.

This period also saw the emergence of many biographical works based on enlightenment tastes, designed to cultivate patriotism and awaken the national consciousness. Representative works include, Aeguk puinjon (Tale of the Patriotic Lady) (Chang Ji-yon, 1907) and E lchi Mundok (Shin Ch'ae-ho, 1908). The biographies presented images of the kind of hero called for by the realities of the period. An Kuk-son's Kumsu hoeuirok (Notes From the Meeting of the Birds and Beasts) (1908) is the representative of this kind of work: it centers around the orations of animals who criticize the human world's moral depravity.

While a professional class of writers began to be formed by men like Yi In-jik, Yi Hae-cho, Ch'oe Ch'an-shik and Kim Ko-je, a new literary form called the shinsosol (new novel) secured a popular readership base. Yi In-jik's Hyoluinu (Tears of Blood) (1906) and E nsegye (The Silver World) (1908), were followed by Yi Hae-cho's Kumagom (The Demon-Ousting Sword) and Chayujong (The Freedom Bell). Ch'oe Ch'an-shik's Ch'uwolsaek (The Color of the Autumn Moon) (1912) is also a well-known work. Det shinsosol, all written in Han-gul, achieved mass popularity. These novels portrayed Enlightenment ideals against the background of the realities of contemporary life, and the unrealistic, transcendental worlds of old are not found in their plots. It was in the shinsosol that "time reversal" was first applied as a structural technique. The authors also adopted a vernacular prose style that brought them closer to the form of the modern novel. However, in the wake of the Japanese takeover of Korea in 1910, the character of the shinsosol began to change. The later works gave more weight to the fates of individual characters, and commonplace love-struggles became more prominent.

Korea suffered a great deal under Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945). Coercing the Korean government to conclude the Korean-Japanese Annexation Treaty, Japan then installed a Governor-General in Korea and enforced military rule. Restrictions governing speech and publications were especially severe. As a result, Korea's spirit of self-reliance and independence, together with its will to proceed with the Enlightenment ideals, no longer could find expression in its literature.

The Korean literature of the Japanese colonial period began with the March First Independence Movement of 1919. It was during this period that the Korean people began to exhibit a more positive attitude in coping with their national situation. Strengthened by feelings of national self-awakening which had been stirred up by the March First Independence Movement of 1919, the literature of that period began to show an interest in themes of self-discovery and individual expression, as well as an increased interest in concrete reality. Literary coterie magazines emerged, like Ch'angjo (Creation) (1919), P'yeho (The Ruins) (1920), and Paekcho (White Tide) (1922), and literary circles formed. With the publication of magazines like Kaebyok (The Opening) (1920), creative literary efforts also began to become more actively developed. In particular, the publication of national newspapers, like the Dong-A Ilbo og Chosun Ilbo, contributed toward establishing a broad base of support for artistic endeavors.

In the early 1920s, the base support for Korea's modern literature began to expand as people experienced a renewed self-awakening and recognition of their national predicaments in the wake of the March 1919 uprising. The novels of this period describe the sufferings of the intellectual who drifts through reality, and expose the pathetic lives of the laborers and farmers. Yi Kwang-su's short story Sonyonui piae (The Sorrow of Youth) in which he writes of the inner pain of the individual, was followed by his full-length novel Mujong (Heartlessness) (1917), the success of which placed him at the center of Korean letters. Mujong was not thoroughgoing in its apprehension of colonial period reality, but as a novel combining the fatalistic life of the individual with the Zeitgeist of the period, it is recognized as being modern in character. Med Paettaragi (Following the Boat) (1921) and Kamja (Potatoes) (1925), Kim Tong-in also contributed greatly to the short-story genre. In it, he minutely describes in realistic detail the shifting fates of man. Hyon Chin-gon's Unsu choun nal (The Lucky Day) (1924) is also a work which employs superb technique in describing people coping with the pain of their reality. Yom Sang-sop's P'yobonshilui ch'nonggaeguri (Green Frog in the Specimen Gallery) (1921) deals again with the wanderings and frustrations of the intellectual and in Mansejon (The Tale of Forever) (1924), Yom gives expression to the colonial realities of a devastated Korea.

The poetry of this period also established a new and modern Korean poetry as it borrowed from the French techniques of vers libre. Both the free verse of Chu Yo-han's Pullori (Fireworks) (1919) and Kim So-wol's poetry collection Chindallae kkot (Azaleas) (1925) made enormous contributions toward establishing the foundations of modern Korean poetry. Kim reconstructed the meter of the traditional folk ballad, successfully giving poetic shape to a world of sentiment. Yi Sang-hwa, in his works entitled Madonna (Madonna) and Ppaeatkin Turedo pomun onun-ga (Does Spring Come to Those Who Have Been Plundered?), attempted to come to terms with the suffering of the age and the agony of the individual, through the poetic recognition of the realities of colonialism. Based on Buddhist thought, Han Yong-un, in his Nimui ch'immuk (Thy Silence) (1926) sang of "Thou" as an absolute existence, and tragically compared the reality of Koreans' loss of their nation to that of the loss suffered by a woman who must endure the separation of her loved one or husband.

In the mid-1920s, Korean literature was divided into national and class literatures, in accordance with the democratic and socialist ideals that were popular that time. By 1925 the class literature movement began to solidify with the organization of the Korea Proletarian Artist's Federation (KAPF). The proletarian literature movement, by expanding its organization and targeting the elevation of class consciousness through literature, sought to strengthen class ideology in society. In order to achieve mass support from the farmers and laborers, it poured its energies into the creation of a "labor literature" and a "farmer literature." Most notable of this kind of novel include Ch'oe So-hae's T'alch'ulgi (Record of an Escape) (1925), Cho Myong-hui's Naktonggang (The Naktonggang river) (1927), Yi Ki-yong's Kohyang (Hometown) (1934), and Han Sol-ya's Hwanghon (Twilight). These works are for the most part based in class consciousness and emphasize the struggles against colonialism, with farmers and laborers playing the central protagonists in that struggle. In the case of poetry, Pak Se-yong, Im Hwa and Kim Ch'ang-sul all took aim at the class contradictions under colonialism and published many "tendency poems" (kyonghyangshi) emphasizing the consciousness of class struggle.

During the 1930s, Korean literature underwent important changes as Japanese militarism was strengthened and ideological coercion began to be applied to literature. Pursuit of the communal ideology, which until that point had formed the course of Korean literature, became a thing of the past. New and various literary trends began to emerge.

Many novels written during this period experimented with new styles and techniques. I Nalgae (Wings) and Chongsaenggi (Record of the End of a Life), for example, Yi Sang used the technique of dissociation of the self from the world around him. Yi Hyo-sok's Memilkkot p'il muryop (When the Buckwheat Flowers Bloom) and Kim Yu-jong's Tongbaek kkot (Camellia Blossoms) are counted as masterful works of this genre. Also, Pak T'ae-won's Sosolga Kubossiui Iril (Days of Kubo the Novelist) (1934) and Yi T'ae-jun's Kkamagwi (The Crow) (1936) opened up new vistas for the novel with their new stylistic sensibilities. In these novels, novelistic space grows from within the interior of the self. By contrast, the full length novels of Yom Sang-sop's Samdae (The Three Generations) (1931), Pak T'ae-won's Ch'eonbyon p'unggyong (Views by the Riverside) (1937), Ch'ae Man-shik's T'angnyu (The Muddy Stream) (1938), and Hong Myong-hui's Im Kkok-chong chon (Tale of Im Kkok-chong) (1939), all narrate the story of the lives of their characters against the backdrop of Korea's tumultuous history.

The modernism movement is the most impressive feature of the poetry of this period. It emerged as sunsushi (pure poetry). The pioneering poems of Chong Chi-yong and Kim Yong-nang embody poetic lyricism through intricate linguistic sensibility and refined technique. Yi Sang, in particular, played a central role in the development of this new kind of experimental poetry. Also, aligned with this movement was the so-called Saengmyongp'a (the life poets) movement which included writers like So Chong-ju and Yu Ch'i-hwan. Another significant trend during this period was the nature-poems of Pak Tu-jin and Pak Mok-wol, among others. The poetry of Yi Yuk-sa and Yun Dong-ju was also important in that it captured the emotion of the people in their resistance to Japanese imperialism.

After the liberation from the Japanese in 1945, Korea became embroiled in the political maneuvers of the World Powers, and the division into South and North became unavoidable. This division in political thought also made a significant impact on the literary world, as the factionalism and struggles began to occur between Southern and Northern literatures. The Korean War(1950-1953) was a tragic interim which solidified Korea's division into South and North. Postwar Korean society's emergence from the wounds and chaos of that war had a considerable impact on the development of Korean literature.

For the most part, the postwar novel in South Korea deals with the struggles of the Korean people to achieve deliverance from their national pain and anguish. The writings of Kim Tong-ri and Hwang Sun-won are representatives of this new type of literature. Also included in this genre is An Su-kil, whose novel Pukkando (1959) portrays the pioneering fortitude and steadfast spiritual power of Koreans who migrate to Manchuria. In addition, many of the postwar generation writers took as their predominant theme the collapse of the traditional socio-moral value systems, as seen in Oh Sang-won's Moban (Revolt) (1957) and Son Ch'ang-sop's Injo in-gan (Artificial Man) (1958). Pak Kyong-ri's Pulshin shidae (The Age of Mistrust) (1957), Chong Kwang-yong's Kkoppittan Li (Captain Lee) (1962) and Yi Bom-son's Obalt'an (A Bullet Misfired), in particular, deal squarely with the chaos and moral collapse of postwar society. Yi Ho-ch'iol's Nasang (The Nude Portrait) (1957) and Ch'oe Sang-gyu's P'oint'du (Point) (1956) describe people living their lives in a veritable pit of bleak reality.

The search for a new poetic spirit and technique was also a significant feature of Korea's postwar poetry. Among the postwar trends was the Chont'ongp'a (traditionalists), movement, marked by a style rooted in traditional rhythms and folk sentiment. The centrality of individual sentiment and sensibility in the Chont'ongp'a, combined with the traditional rhythmic base, brought a broad, folkish sentiment into the realm of poetry. In addition to Pak Jae-sam, whose P'iri (Flute) and Ulum i t'anun kang (The Saddened River) was inspired by the world of traditional sentiment and folk feeling, Ku Ja-un, Yi Tong-ju and Chong Han-mo were also significant contributors to this movement. Another trend in postwar poetry was the Shilhomp'a (experientialists) who, while venturing to bring new experiences to poetic language and form, concentrated on changing the tradition. Kim Kyong-rin, Pak In-hwan, Kim Kyu-dong, Kim Ch'a-yong and Yi Pong-rae, as well as a coterie of writers called the Huban-gi (The Later Years), were central to this new postwar modernist movement. In particular, Pak Pong-u and Chon Pong-gon, brought critical recognition and a satirical approach to social conditions through poetry.

At the close of the 1950s, writers like Kim Sung-ok, Pak T'ae-sun, So Jong-in, Yi Ch'song-jun, Hong Song-won and Ch'oe In-hun made their literary debut. Ch'oe In-hun's Kwangjang (The Square), for example, gave expression to the agony, wanderings and frustrations of the intellectual using a unique novelistic structure. Kim Sung-ok, in his Seoul 1964, Kyoul (Seoul, 1964, Winter), wrote about the life of the petit bourgeois.

Shortly after the April 19th Revolution of 1960, poetic trends also changed. Poets like Shin Tong-yop and Kim Su-yong emphatically rejected the sentimental escapism of the postwar period and began to advocate the necessity to engage its readership with the political reality of the times. Kim Su-yong's Tallara C ui changnan (The Prank of the Moonland) (1959) and Shin Tong-yop's long poem Kumgang (The Kumgang river) (1967) for example, both express this new realistic sensibility by advocating the view that poetry become a significant means for political expression.

During the 1970s, Korean society found itself in the throes of rapid industrialization in which the gap between the rich and the poor, as well as regional disparities in industrial development, became markedly visible. As the political angst among the people increased, a new anti-establishment literary movement exploded onto the scene. The most important characteristic of the Korean novel during this period was its positive concern for various social problems which began to appear during the industrialization process. Yi Mun-gu's Kwanch'on sup'il (Kwanch'on Essays) (1977), for example, portrays the actual conditions of farmers who were neglected and became impoverished in the midst of the industrial development of the nation. The lifestyles of Seoul's "border citizens" (those living in the outskirts of the city) and the labor scene were also vividly portrayed in Hwang Sok-yong's Kaekchi (The Strange Land) (1970) and Samp'o kanun kil (The Road to Samp'o) and Cho Se-hui's Nanjang-iga ssoa ollin chagun kong (Small Ball Thrown by a Dwarf) (1978). Clearly, these novels opened up new possibilities for the "labor" novel as they gave new expression to the depravities and sufferings borne by the lives of the laborers in Korea during this period in history. Yi Ch'Song-jun's Tangshindul C ui ch'ion-guk (Your Heaven) (1976), Chaninhan toshi (The Cruel City) (1978) and O jong-hui's Yunyon C ui ttul (The Garden of Childhood) (1981), all examine the theme of human isolation and alienation which marked these laborers' experiences of industrial development. The social satire apparent throughtout Pak Wan-so's Hwich'aonggorinun ohu (The Reeling Afternoon) (1977) and Ch'oe Il-lam's T'aryong (The Tune) (1977) are representative of important tendencies in the novel of this period.

There also emerged during this period what has been referred to as the "division novel" (pundansosol) which brought to the fore a critical examination of national division. Kim Won-il's Noul (Sunset)(1978), Chon Sang-guk's Abeui kajok (Abe's Family) (1980) and Cho Jong-rae's T'aebaeksanmaek (The T'aebaeksan Mountains) are representative of this new type of novel. Also noteworthy is the roman-fleuve, like Pak Kyong-ri's T'oji(The Land), judged to be one of the most important achievements of modern Korean literature.

In the realm of poetry, the works which centered around the experiences of the minjung (roughly translated "oppressed people" or "oppressed masses") most clearly defined the poetic trends of the times. Shin Kyong-rim's Nongmu (Farmer's Dance) (1973) and Ko E Un's Munui maule kaso (Going to Munui Village) (1974), for example, both clearly demonstrate this concern for the lives of the minjung (people). Kim Chi-ha's T'anun mongmarum uro (Towards a Thirst) (1982), in particular, gave expression to the fighting spirit of the minjung in its struggle against industrial exploitation.

Korean literature was largely unknown to the world until the 1980s, when translations of Korean literary works began to appear in foreign countries. Since then, the types of works selected for translation have become increasingly diverse, and the quality of the translations themselves have improved steadily. Furthermore, as the translations principally are being published by overseas publishers, the translations have became available to a wider reading public.

Since the 1980s, Korean literature in English translation has spread widely in the English-speaking countries. Anthologies of Korean modern short stories such as Flowers of Fire (Peter H. Lee, University of Hawaii Press, 1974) and Land of Exile (Marshall R. Pihl and Bruce Fulton, New York: M.E.Sharpe, 1993) are widely used as textbooks in universities all across the English-speaking world.

The Korean novelists whose works have been most widely translated are Hwang Sun-won and Kim Tong-ri. Hwang's novel Umjiginun song (The Moving Castle) was translated in the United States by Bruce Fulton. Other works, including Collected Short Stories by Hwang Sun-won translated by Edward Poitras, and another similar collection by Professor Holman, have also been available in English. Important works by Kim Tong-ri such as E lhwa (Eulhwa, The Shaman Sorceress), Munyodo (The Portrait of the Shaman) have been translated and published. Poetry selections by Han Yong-un (Your Silence), So chong-ju(Winter Sky) and Hwang Dong-gyu (Wind Berial) can also be found in English translation.

In francophone countries, the scope of literary translation activities from Korean is limited compared to those in English-speaking countries but in these countries too, projects are actively underway. Yi Mun-yol has had their greatest overseas exposure through French translations. Translated works by Yi Mun-yol include Uridurui ilgurojin yongung (Notre Heros Defigure) and Shiin (Le Poete) . Other Korean novels available in French are Cho Se-hui's Nanjang-iga ssoa ollin chagun kong (La petite Balle Lancee par un Nain). Translations of poetry by individual authors include those of Han Yong-un and Gu Sang. Such translation projects will continue in the future in an ongoing effort to introduce Korean literature to readers throughout the world


General Overviews

The best works that provide general overviews of South Korean politics can be found in books that address the modern history of the two Koreas. Oberdorfer 2001, Cumings 2005, and Robinson 2007 approach South Korean politics in view of the intertwined relationship between South and North Korean politics and foreign relations. They address some of the most important shared historical experiences such as the Japanese colonialism, the occupation, the division, the Korean War, and the Cold War in general to highlight the origins of South Korean politics. Oberdorfer 2001 in particular does a great job of recounting South Korean domestic politics in conjunction with inter-Korean relations and its relations with the United States. Of the books published on the topic of South Korean politics, Diamond and Kim 2000, and Oh 1999 make the best introductory textbooks for undergraduate courses. Khil 1984 helps understand the basics for the political systems of the two Koreas. Yang 1999 is a comprehensive study of the politics and foreign policy of South Korea, written by a scholar and former ROK ambassador to the United States. Kil and Moon 2001 is a good introduction to South Korean politics that covers major themes including culture, history, institutions, actors, democratization, political economy, and foreign policy.

Cumings, Bruce. Korea’s Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: Norton, 2005.

A historical overview of Korean politics intended for a general readership. But Cumings’s use of extensive English and Korean archives make the read useful to scholars as well.

Diamond, Larry, and Byung-Kook Kim. Consolidating Democracy in South Korea. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Provides a social science overview of various aspects of the South Korean political system on the theme of democratic consolidation. The chapters include discussions on party politics, civil society, labor issues, economic development, and electoral politics provided by leading Korea scholars.

Khil, Young Whan. Politics and Policies in Divided Korea: Regimes in Conflict. Boulder, CO, and London: Westview, 1984.

Offers a general overview of the South Korean political system until the early 1980s juxtaposed with the North Korean system in a comparative manner. Useful for grasping a basic background of how the two countries have developed distinctively different political systems.

Kil, Soong-hoom, and Chung-in Moon. Understanding Korean Politics: An Introduction. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.

An edited volume that offers a comprehensive overview of South Korean politics. A total of nine chapters discuss political culture and history, institutions, leadership, democratization, political economy, and foreign and unification policies. Can be used as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses on Korean politics.

Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. New York: Basic Books, 2001.

A detailed journalistic account on Korean politics. Drawn from some of Oberdorfer’s own reporting in the region (a former Washington Post correspondent in Asia) and with numerous interviews with high-level officials who were directly involved in important critical junctures. Entertaining for the general reader, but also with interesting empirical evidence for the scholar.

Oh, John Kie-chiang. Korean Politics: The Quest for Democratization and Economic Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Provides a good overview of the evolution of South Korean politics chronologically. Uses the lens of the interplay between democratization and economic development. The chapters are a little dense but can be useful for the undergraduate classroom as they pinpoint major themes. Informative and well-organized.

Robinson, Michael. Korea’s Twentieth-Century Odyssey: A Short History. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.

A comprehensive overview of Korea’s modern political history. Offers a very balanced historical interpretation of events and therefore can be used as a college textbook.

Yang, Sung-chul. The North and South Korean Political Systems: A Comparative Analysis. Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym, 1999.

Written by a Kyunghee University professor and former South Korean ambassador to the United States during the Kim Dae-jung presidency, this voluminous work provides a detailed political history of the two systems. Its scope is encyclopedic.

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