Mavis Batey

Mavis Batey


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Mavis Lever, datter af en postarbejder og en syerske, blev født i Dulwich, London, den 5. maj 1921. Hun var en talentfuld sprogforsker, og efter at have bestået sit tyske O -niveau overtalte hun sine forældre til at tage hende til Tyskland på ferie. Hun studerede tysk litteratur på University College, da anden verdenskrig brød ud. (1)

Mavis mindede senere om: "Jeg ville ikke fortsætte med akademiske studier. University College var lige ved at evakuere til campus ved Aberystwyth i det vestlige Wales. Men jeg tænkte, at jeg burde gøre noget bedre for krigsindsatsen end at læse tyske digtere i Wales. Tyske digtere ville jo snart være over os i bombefly. Jeg bemærkede over for nogen, at jeg skulle uddanne mig til sygeplejerske. " Hendes ven foreslog, at hendes meget gode tysk kunne være til nytte for regeringen. (2)

Mavis sluttede sig til ministeriet for økonomisk krigsførelse. Hendes første opgave var at kontrollere de personlige kolonner af Tiderne for kodede meddelelser. (3) Hun udførte også andet arbejde som at "sortliste alle de mennesker, der havde med Tyskland at gøre - gennem kommoder, de brugte." Kort tid efter blev hun bedt om at besøge Udenrigsministeriet: "Jeg blev kaldt til interviewet i Udenrigsministeriet - afholdt af en formidabel dame ved navn Miss Moore - jeg ved ikke, om hun vidste, hvad vi skulle gøre. På det tidspunkt i interviewet vidste vi ikke, om vi skulle være spioner eller hvad. Men så blev jeg sendt til Bletchley. " (4)

Mavis blev sendt til Government Code og Cypher School i Bletchley Park. Bletchley blev udvalgt ganske enkelt som mere eller mindre lige langt fra Oxford University og Cambridge University, da udenrigsministeriet mente, at universitetets personale lavede de bedste kryptografer. Selve huset var et stort victoriansk tudor-gotisk palæ, hvis rigelige grunde skrånede ned til banegården. Nogle af nøgletallene i organisationen, herunder dens leder, Alfred Dilwyn Knox, sov altid på kontoret. (5)

Under anden verdenskrig var radiokommunikation et vigtigt aspekt af moderne krigsførelse. Radio blev brugt til luft-, sø- og mobil landkrig. Det var imidlertid meget vigtigt, at fjenden ikke var klar over disse meddelelser. Derfor skulle al radiokommunikation være forklædt. Hovedopgaven for kodebryderne var at læse meddelelser, der blev sendt af den tyske Enigma Machine. Situationen blev forklaret af Francis Harry Hinsley: "I 1937 blev det fastslået, at ... den tyske hær, den tyske flåde og sandsynligvis flyvevåbnet sammen med andre statslige organisationer som jernbanerne og SS anvendte, for alle undtagen deres taktiske kommunikation, forskellige versioner af det samme cypersystem - Enigma -maskinen, der var blevet bragt på markedet i 1920'erne, men som tyskerne havde gjort mere sikre ved progressive ændringer. " (6)

Peter Calvocoressi, forklaret i sin bog, Top Secret Ultra (1980), den opgave, som kodebryderne stod over for. "Selvom tastaturet var enklere end en skrivemaskine, var Enigma -maskinen i alle andre henseender meget mere kompliceret. Bag tastaturet blev alfabetet gentaget i yderligere tre rækker og i samme rækkefølge, men denne gang var bogstaverne ikke på taster, men i små runde glasskiver, der var sat i en flad rektangulær plade og kunne lyse op ad gangen. Da operatøren slog en tast, tændte et af disse bogstaver. Men det var aldrig det samme bogstav. Ved at slå P kunne operatøren f.eks. få L til at dukke op, og næste gang han slog P, ville han hverken få P eller L, men noget helt andet. Denne operatør kaldte bogstaverne, da de stod i lys, og en anden operatør, der sad ved siden af ​​ham, noterede dem. Denne sekvens var derefter overført med trådløs i den sædvanlige Morse -kode og blev hentet af den, der skulle lytte efter det. "

Både personen, der sender og modtog beskeden, havde en håndbog, der fortalte ham, hvad han skulle gøre hver dag. Dette omfattede maskinens indstillinger. Som Calvocoressi påpegede: "Disse dele eller gadgets bestod af et sæt hjulrotorer og et sæt propper. Deres formål var ikke blot at gøre P til L, men at gøre det på en så kompleks måde, at det praktisk talt var umuligt for en aflyttere at finde ud af, hvad der var foregået inde i maskinen i hvert tilfælde. Det er ganske let at konstruere en maskine, der altid vil gøre P til L, men det er derefter forholdsvis let at finde ud af, at L altid betyder P; en simpel substitution af denne slags er utilstrækkelig til særligt hemmelig trafik. Aflytterens grundlæggende opgave var at indstille sin maskine på nøjagtig samme måde, som den legitime modtager af beskeden havde indstillet sin, da aflytteren så ikke kunne læse meddelelsen uden større vanskeligheder end legitim modtager. Jo mere kompleks maskinen og dens interne arbejde er, desto vanskeligere og mere tidskrævende var det for aflytteren at løse dette problem .... Selvom kun tre hjul kunne indsættes i maskinen når som helst på e gang var der i 1939 udstedt fem hjul med hver maskine. Operatøren måtte bruge tre af dette sæt af fem. Han var nødt til at vælge de rigtige tre og derefter placere dem i en foreskrevet rækkefølge. Dette var afgørende, fordi hjulene, selvom de var udadtil identiske, var forskelligt kablet inde. "(7)

Mavis arbejdede meget tæt sammen med Alfred Dilwyn Knox. "Vi blev alle kastet i den dybe ende. Ingen vidste, hvordan den velsignede ting fungerede. Da jeg først ankom, fik jeg at vide: 'Vi bryder maskiner, har du en blyant? Og det var det. Du har ingen forklaring. Jeg har aldrig set en Enigma -maskine. Dilly Knox var i stand til at reducere den - jeg vil ikke sige til et spil, men en slags sproglig puslespil. Det var snarere som at køre i bil, uden at have nogen idé om, hvad der foregår under motorhjelmen. " (8) "Vi kiggede hele tiden på ny trafik, eller hvor hjulene eller ledningerne var blevet ændret eller på andre nye teknikker. Så du skulle selv klare det hele fra bunden." (9)

Knox indrømmede, at han kunne lide at ansætte kvinder. Ifølge Sinclair McKay, forfatteren til Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010): "Dilwyn Knox ... fandt ud af, at kvinder havde en større evne til det krævede arbejde - såvel som smidighed i sindet og kapacitet til sidetænkning havde de en omhu og opmærksomhed på detaljer, som mange mænd måske ikke havde haft. Dette er selvfølgelig bare spekulationer; den anden mulighed, og en der synes sandsynlig i betragtning af ridser i mange af Knox 'personlige handler, var, at han simpelthen ikke kunne lide mænd særlig meget. " (10) Knox var så imponeret over Mavis Levers arbejde, at han i august 1940 kontaktede hovedkontoret: "Miss Lever er den dygtigste og mest nyttige, og hvis der er en udvælgelsesordning for en lille lønfremgang, hendes navn bør overvejes. " (11)

Kort efter ankomsten til Bletchley Park mødte Mavis Keith Batey. En dag måtte hun formidle et operationelt budskab til Hut 3. Senere huskede han: "Sent en aften. Jeg var i hytten, på aftenvagten, og sådan mødte jeg hende. Denne lille pige ankom fra Dillys outfit med denne besked eller problem - hun vidste ikke, hvordan den skulle løses. " Der gik flere måneder, før de blev det, hun kaldte en "vare". Selvom folk fra forskellige enheder ikke måtte have "samtaler vedrørende arbejde", var der ingen regler mod "frieri". (12)

Knox opfordrede alle sine assistenter til at se på problemer fra uventede vinkler. Knox ville spørge nyankomne, hvilken vej et ur gik rundt. (13) Når de svarede "med uret", svarede Knox, at det ville afhænge af, om man var observatøren eller uret. Selvom de fleste af kodebryderne var matematikere, mente Knox, at dette forårsagede dem problemer, da "matematikere er meget fantasiløse". (14)

Mavis Lever arbejdede sammen med Knox på den "opdaterede italienske Naval Enigma -maskine, kontrollerede al ny trafik og endda hjul, tandhjul og ledninger for at se, hvordan den var konstrueret." (15) I marts 1941 tyde hun en besked, "I dag den 25. marts er X-3". Hun huskede senere, at "hvis du får en besked, der siger" i dag minus tre ", ved du, at der er noget temmelig stort på vej." Arbejder med et team af efterretningsanalytikere kunne hun regne ud, at den italienske flåde planlagde at angribe britiske troppekonvojer, der sejlede fra Alexandria til Piræus i Grækenland. ud for Siciliens kyst. Over 3.000 italienske søfolk døde under slaget ved Cape Matapan. Admiral John Henry Godfrey, direktør for Naval Intelligence, sendte en besked til Bletchley Park: "Fortæl Dilly (Knox), at vi har vundet en stor sejr i Middelhavet, og det skyldes ham og hans piger. "(16)

Mavis kæreste, Keith Batey, følte sig skyldig i arbejdet i Bletchley Park, mens så mange af hans samtidige risikerede deres liv i åben kamp. "Derfor fortalte han sine chefer, at han ville uddanne sig til pilot, kun for at blive informeret om, at ingen, der vidste, at briterne bryder Enigma, kunne få lov til at flyve i RAF, risikoen er, at han kan blive skudt ned og taget til fange . Batey foreslog derefter, at han skulle slutte sig til Fleet Air Arm og flyve over havet til forsvar for britiske skibe og argumenterede for, at han enten ville blive dræbt eller afhentet af sin egen side. Slidt af sin vedholdenhed accepterede hans overordnede modvilligt. " Parret giftede sig i november 1942 kort før Batey rejste til Canada for Fleet Air Arm avanceret flyvekurs. (17)

Mavis Batey spillede en meget vigtig rolle i brud på Enigma -chifferet, der blev brugt af den tyske hemmelige tjeneste, Abwehr. Dette var et vigtigt aspekt af det, der blev kendt som Double-Cross System (XX-Committee). Oprettet af John Masterman var det en operation, der forsøgte at vende "tyske agenter mod deres herrer og overtalte dem til at samarbejde om at sende falske oplysninger tilbage til Berlin." (18) Masterman havde brug for at vide, om tyskerne troede på den falske intelligens, de modtog.

Mavis var en del af et team, der omfattede Alfred Dilwyn Knox og Margaret Rock, der brød Abwehr Enigma. "Den 8. december 1941 brød Mavis Batey en besked om forbindelsen mellem Beograd og Berlin, hvilket tillod genopbygning af en af ​​rotorerne. Inden få dage havde Knox og hans team brudt ind i Abwehr Enigma, og kort tid efter brød Mavis en anden Abwehr -maskine, GGG og tilføjede briternes evne til at læse Abwehr-meddelelser på højt niveau og bekræfte, at tyskerne troede på den falske Double-Cross-intelligens, de blev fodret med af dobbeltagenterne. " (19)

Denne Double-Cross operation blev meget vigtig under de foreslåede D-Day landinger. Bedrageriplanen var blevet udtænkt af Tomás Harris og udført af dobbeltagent, Juan Pujol: "Bedragets vigtigste mål var:" (a) At få den tyske kommando til at tro, at hovedangrebet og opfølgningen vil være i eller øst for Pas de Calais -området og derved tilskynde fjenden til at opretholde eller øge styrken af ​​sine luft- og landstyrker og hans befæstninger der på bekostning af andre områder, især Caen -området i Normandiet. (b) At holde fjenden i tvivl om datoen og tidspunktet for det faktiske overfald. (c) Under og efter hovedangrebet for at indeholde størst mulige tyske land- og luftvåben i eller øst for Pas de Calais i mindst fjorten dage. "(20)

Harris udarbejdede en handlingsplan for Pujol (kodenavnet GARBO). Han skulle informere tyskerne om, at invasionens åbningsfase var i gang, da de landbårne landinger startede, og fire timer før de havbårne landinger begyndte. "Dette, begrundede XX-udvalget, ville være for senere for tyskerne at gøre alt for at gøre noget for at frustrere angrebet, men ville bekræfte, at GARBO forblev opmærksom, aktiv og velplaceret til at opnå kritisk vigtig efterretning." (21)

Christopher Andrew har forklaret, hvordan strategien fungerede: "I løbet af de første seks måneder af 1944, i samarbejde med Tomás Harris, sendte han (GARBO) mere end 500 beskeder til Abwehr -stationen i Madrid, som som tyske aflytninger afslørede, sendte dem til Berlin, mange markerede 'Urgent' ... Slutakten i bedrag før D-dagen blev på passende vis overladt til sine største udøvere, GARBO og Tomás Harris. Efter flere ugers pres fik Harris endelig tilladelse til, at GARBO fik lov til at radio en advarsel om, at de allierede styrker var på vej mod Normandies strande bare for sent til, at tyskerne kunne drage fordel af det. " (22)

Det blev senere påpeget: "Den falske intelligens fik tyskerne til at tro, at hovedstyrken ville lande på Pas de Calais frem for i Normandiet. Som et resultat heraf insisterede Hitler på, at to centrale pansrede divisioner blev holdt tilbage i Calais -området. .. Brigadier Bill Williams, Montgomery's efterretningsofficer, sagde, at bedragsoperationen ikke kunne have været monteret uden Abwehr Enigma.Kræfterne i Calais ville være flyttet til Normandiet og godt kunne have smidt de allierede tilbage i havet. " (23)

Efter krigen opgav hun arbejdet med at opdrage sine tre børn, Elizabeth, Christopher og Deborah. Hun fortalte senere Sinclair McKay, forfatteren til Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010): "Jeg kom ikke rigtig tilbage til nogen form for intellektuel aktivitet, før mine tre børn var blevet voksne. Efter det kunne jeg gå til Bodleian -biblioteket hver dag. Så jeg tog til sidst op." (24)

I 1967 blev Keith Batey økonomichef ved Oxford University, og de boede på universitetets Nuneham Park -ejendom, hvor haverne, der blev anlagt i det 18. århundrede, var blevet tilgroet. Mens han undersøgte ejendommen, udviklede Mavis Batey sig til en interesse i historiske haver. I løbet af de næste par år blev hun "en uhyre inspirerende kraft bag bevægelser" af kampagnen for at beskytte landdistrikterne England og engelsk arv for at beskytte disse haver. (25)

Mavis Batey blev æresekretær for Garden History Society fra 1971 til 1985, derefter dets ærespræsident. Hun skrev også flere bøger om historiske haver, bl.a. Jane Austen og det engelske landskab (1996) og Alexander Pave: Poesi og landskab (1999). Hun udgav også en kærlig biografi om Alfred Dilwyn Knox, med titlen Dilly: The Man Who Broke Enigmas (2010). Hun rådede Kate Winslet om, hvordan det var at være en kvindelig kodebryder til filmen Enigma.

Mavis Batey, død 92 år gammel, den 12. november 2013.

Mavis Batey erindrer levende V-1 raketterne og de midler, som kodebryderne i Bletchley Park forsøgte at modvirke dem. "Vi arbejdede hele tiden på dobbeltagenter og gav misinformation til deres controllere. Og fordi vi kunne læse Enigma, kunne vi se, hvordan de modtog denne misinformation. En af tingene, da Vls startede, var, at dobbeltagenten blev spurgt at give en rapport til tyskerne om, hvor raketterne faldt. Fordi de selvfølgelig ville have dem til at falde på det centrale London.

"På det tidspunkt faldt bomberne i det centrale London, så efterretninger her ville have dem til at skære ud på et andet tidspunkt. Så denne dobbeltagent blev instrueret i at fortælle sine herrer, at de faldt nord for London. Resultatet af dette var, at tyskerne skære rækkevidden lidt tilbage, og som følge heraf begyndte raketterne at falde i det sydlige London. Lige hvor mine forældre boede. "

I dette tilfælde så det ud til, at for fru Batey i det mindste var uvidenhed at foretrække frem for enhver anden stat; af sikkerhedsmæssige årsager vidste hun intet om denne dobbeltkrydsning eller de meddelelser, der bekræftede dens succes. "Jeg anede ikke, og det var lige så godt, at jeg ikke gjorde det. Så da jeg så ødelæggelserne på Norbury, vidste jeg ikke, at det havde noget at gøre med noget, jeg lavede. Det ville virkelig have været et frygteligt chok at vide det. "

Dilly selv sov altid på kontoret og vendte tilbage til Courn's Wood en gang om ugen. Hans kørsel var værre end nogensinde. Hans sind var helt andre steder. Heldigvis kørte han langsomt. "Det er fantastisk, hvordan folk smiler og undskylder over for dig, når du vælter dem," bemærkede han.

Med tiden strakte bygningerne inde i parkmurene sig til blokke af hytter og cafeterier, og ved krigens slutning talte personalet mere end syv tusinde, øget af observatører og forbindelsesmænd og vigtige besøgende i uniform. Med alt dette havde Dilly intet at gøre. Først bestod hans afdeling af ti personer, selvom disse udover Peter Twinn også omfattede to meget strålende og sympatiske unge kvinder, Margaret Rock og Mavis Lever (nu fru Batey). De blev indkvarteret i et lille sommerhus med udsigt over den gamle staldgård.

Han ville imidlertid have brug for flere krypterende ekspedienter-ikke det store antal, der til sidst fik statskassen til at klage over, at "Bletchley brugte alle pigerne i landet", men stadig et eget stykke. Til denne opgave gik Dilly ind med ganske uventet entusiasme, og da assistenterne ankom ned fra London med filerne, blev de overraskede over at finde ham omgivet af smukke piger, alle af en eller anden grund meget høje, som han havde rekrutteret til arbejdet . Pigerne tog fra fire til seks måneder at træne, selvom dette ikke blev foretaget af Dilly, der aldrig trænede nogen, men af ​​en dygtig og forstående kvinde, fru Helen Morris. De arbejdede med ligningerne i tre otte-timers skift, og når Dilly ville tale med dem eller til punch-card-operatørerne, der registrerede krypteringerne som prikker, haltede han over for sommerhuset, ofte i sin grå morgenkåbe, ligegyldig til regn og sne, for at fortælle dem sin nye idé.

Mavis Batey, der er død 92 år gammel, var en af ​​de førende kvindelige kodebrydere i Bletchley Park og knækkede Enigma -chifferne, der førte til Royal Navy sejr ved Matapan i 1941.

Hun var den sidste af de store Bletchley "indbrud" -eksperter, de kodebrydere, der fandt vej til nye koder og chiffer, der aldrig var blevet brudt før.

Mavis Batey spillede også en ledende rolle i revnen af ​​den ekstraordinært komplekse tyske hemmelige tjeneste, eller Abwehr, Enigma. Uden denne pause kunne Double Cross-bedragers plan, der sikrede D-Day-landingenes succes, aldrig være gået videre ....

Hun arbejdede oprindeligt i London, tjekkede kommercielle koder og læste de personlige spalter i Tiderne for kodede spionbeskeder. Efter at have vist løfte blev hun plukket ud og sendt til Bletchley for at arbejde i forskningsenheden drevet af Dilly Knox.

Knox havde ført vejen for briterne ved brud på Enigma -chifferne, men arbejdede nu i et sommerhus ved siden af ​​palæet på nye koder og chiffer, der ikke var blevet brudt af Hut 6, hvor den tyske hær og luftvåbnets chiffer var revnet.

"Det var et mærkeligt lille tøj i sommerhuset," sagde Mavis. Knox var en sand excentriker, ofte så indpakket i det puslespil, han arbejdede med, at han absurdly ville fylde en frokostsandwich i hans rør frem for sin tobak:

”Organisation er ikke et ord, du ville forbinde med Dilly Knox. Da jeg ankom, sagde han: 'Åh, hej, vi bryder maskiner, har du en blyant?' Det var det. Jeg fik aldrig rigtig at vide, hvad jeg skulle gøre. Jeg tror, ​​at når jeg ser tilbage på det, var det en stor præcedens i mit liv, fordi han lærte mig at tænke, at man selv kunne gøre ting uden altid at tjekke op for at se, hvad bogen sagde.

”Det var den måde, sommerhuset fungerede på. Vi kiggede hele tiden på ny trafik, eller hvor hjulene eller ledningerne var blevet ændret, eller på andre nye teknikker. Så du skulle selv klare det hele fra bunden. ”

Selvom Mavis kun var 19, begyndte han at arbejde på den opdaterede italienske Naval Enigma -maskine og brød i slutningen af ​​marts 1941 ind i systemet og læste en besked, der simpelthen sagde: "I dag er dagen minus tre." "Hvorfor de måtte sige, at jeg ikke kan forestille mig," huskede hun. ”Det virker ret dumt, men det gjorde de. Så vi arbejdede i tre dage. Det var alle de neglebidende ting at holde op hele natten med at arbejde. Man blev ved med at tænke: ’Jamen, ville man være bedre til det, hvis man sov lidt, eller skal vi bare blive ved?’ - og det tog næsten alle tre dage. Så kom der en meget, meget stor besked ind. ”

Italienerne planlagde at angribe en konvoj fra Royal Navy, der transporterede forsyninger fra Kairo til Grækenland, og meddelelserne indeholdt alle detaljer om de italienske angrebsplaner: ”Hvor mange krydsere var der, og hvor mange ubåde skulle der være, og hvor de skulle være på sådan et tidspunkt, helt utroligt, at de skulle stave det hele ud. ”

Efterretningen blev ringet videre til admiralitetet og skyndte sig ud til admiral Andrew Cunningham, chef for Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet. "Det forunderlige ved ham var, at han spillede det ekstremt sejt," sagde Mavis. "Han vidste, at de ville gå ud og konfrontere den italienske flåde ved Matapan, men han gjorde en rigtig Drake på dem."

Den japanske konsul i Alexandria sendte tyskerne rapporter om bevægelsen af ​​Middelhavsflåden. Konsulen var en ivrig golfspiller, så Cunningham besøgte prangende klubhuset med sine køller og en overnatningspose. "Han lod som om, han bare ville holde weekenden og sørgede for, at den japanske spion ville give det hele tilbage," mindede Mavis. ”Derefter gik de i dække af natten ud og konfronterede italienerne.”

I en række løbende kampe i løbet af 27/28 marts 1941 angreb Cunninghams skibe de italienske fartøjer og sænkede tre tunge krydsere og to destroyere. Uden radar blev italienerne fuldstændig overrasket, og 3.000 af deres søfolk gik tabt.

Mavis Batey, der er død 92 år gammel, blev ofte beskrevet som en af ​​de bedste kvindelige kodebrydere på Bletchley Park, men selvom hun altid var for beskeden til selv at sige det, reducerede dette hendes rolle. Hun var en af ​​de førende kodebrydere af begge køn og brød Enigma-chifferne, der førte til Royal Navy's sejr over Italien ved Matapan i 1941 og afgørende for D-dages landings succes i 1944.

Hun var 19 år gammel, da hun blev sendt til Bletchley, det kodebrydende center i Buckinghamshire, i begyndelsen af ​​1940 og sat i arbejde i No 3 Cottage, i forskningsafsnittet, der brød ind i nye chiffer -systemer, der aldrig var brudt før. Det blev drevet af den veteran kodebrydere og den græske lærde Dilly Knox, der ikke kun havde brudt Zimmermann -telegrammet, der bragte USA ind i den første verdenskrig, men også havde sammensat grimerne fra den græske dramatiker Herodas fra papyri -fragmenter fundet i en Egyptisk hule.

I marts 1941 brød Mavis en række meddelelser, der var krypteret på den italienske flådes Enigma -maskine, der afslørede alle detaljerne om planerne om at bagholde en Royal Navy forsyningskonvoj, der færger forsyninger fra Egypten til Grækenland. Planerne gav admiral Andrew Cunningham, øverstkommanderende for Royal Navy's Middelhavsflåde, mulighed for at vende bordet på italienerne, der blev helt overrasket. Cunninghams skibe sank tre tunge krydsere og to estroyere med tabet af 3.000 italienske søfolk. Den italienske flåde konfronterede aldrig Royal Navy igen.

Cunningham besøgte sommerhuset for at takke Knox og hans team af unge kvindelige kodebrydere. "Sommerhusvæggen var lige blevet kalket," huskede Mavis. "Nogen lokkede admiralen til at læne sig op ad den, så han fik kalk på sin dejlige mørkeblå uniform. Vi forsøgte ikke at fnise, da han gik."

Mavis Batey var havehistoriker og bevaringsforkæmper, men ukendt for mange indtil for nylig, var også en af ​​de førende kvindelige Bletchley Park -kodebrydere, hvis evner til at afkode de tyske Enigma -chiffer viste sig at være afgørende på forskellige punkter i krigen. Ved krigsudbruddet afbrød hun sine tyskstudier for at melde sig til sygeplejerske, men fik at vide, at hun ville blive mere brugt som sprogforsker. Hun havde håbet på at være en Mata Hari-spion, der forførte preussiske officerer, men hun sagde: "Jeg synes ikke, at hverken mine ben eller min tysker var gode nok, fordi de sendte mig til Government Code & Cipher School."

Batey var den sidste af Bletchley "indbrud" -eksperterne-kodebrydere, der knækkede nye koder og chiffer. Hun afslørede Enigma -chifferne, der førte til sejr i slaget ved Cape Matapan i 1941, flådens første flådeaktion siden Trafalgar, og spillede en central rolle i at bryde den forbavsende komplekse Abwehr (tysk hemmelig tjeneste) Enigma. Uden dette kunne Double Cross bedrag-planen, der sikrede D-Dags succes, ikke være gået videre ....

Batey begyndte at arbejde på den opdaterede italienske Naval Enigma -maskine, kontrollerede al ny trafik og endda hjul, tandhjul og ledninger for at se, hvordan den var konstrueret. Hun rekonstruerede ledningerne fra maskinen for at opdage en større maskinfejl, der hjalp hendes team med at bryde endnu flere kodede meddelelser. "Du skulle selv klare det hele fra bunden," huskede hun, "men fik evnen til at tænke sidelæns." I marts 1941 tyde hun en besked: "I dag er dagen minus tre", som fortalte dem, at den italienske flåde var i stand til noget.

Batey og hendes kolleger arbejdede i tre dage og nætter, indtil hun afkodede "en meget, meget lang besked" med detaljer om den italienske flådes foreslåede aflytning af en britisk forsyningskørsel undervejs fra Egypten til Grækenland; det omfattede deres angrebsplan, styrke - krydstogter, ubåde - steder og tider. "Det var helt utroligt, at de skulle stave det hele," huskede hun. Meddelelsen blev videregivet til admiral Andrew Cunningham, chef for Middelhavsflåden, hvilket gav ham den intelligens, han havde brug for for at opfange italienerne.

Han bedrog den japanske konsul i Alexandria, der videregav oplysninger til tyskerne, til at tro, at han havde fri i weekenden til at spille golf. Derefter dækkede han i mørket med tre slagskibe, fire krydsere og et hangarskib. Over 27-28 marts 1941 iscenesatte hans styrker en række overraskelsesangreb. Italienerne mistede tre krydsere, to destroyere og 3.000 søfolk i slaget ved Matapan, turde aldrig mere sejle tæt på Royal Navy. Cunningham tog til Bletchley for at takke Knox enhed, ISK (Intelligence Section Knox).

Helt klart var ISKs vigtigste kup at bryde ind i Enigma -chifferet. MI5 og MI6 havde fanget og identificeret de fleste af Tysklands spioner i Storbritannien og i neutrale Lissabon og Madrid, og havde "vendt" dem ved at bruge dem til at give falske oplysninger til Tyskland om de allieredes foreslåede invasion af Frankrig, i en operation kendt som Dobbelt kryds system.

Ingen vidste dog, om tyskerne troede på efterretningen, fordi Enigma havde vist sig at være uknuselig. Denne maskine havde mange millioner indstillinger, da den brugte fire rotorer, frem for de sædvanlige tre, som roterede tilfældigt uden forudsigeligt mønster.

I samarbejde med Knox og Margaret Rock testede Batey alle muligheder, og i december 1941 brød en besked om forbindelsen mellem Berlin og Beograd, hvilket gjorde det muligt at rekonstruere en af ​​rotorerne. Inden for få dage havde ISK brudt Enigma - og dage senere knækkede Batey en anden Abwehr -chiffermaskine, GGG, som bekræftede, at Tyskland troede på Double Cross -efterretningen.

Britiske agenter fodrede en strøm af falsk efterretning til tysk kommando og overbeviste den om, at der var ved at danne en amerikansk hærgruppe i East Anglia og Kent. Hitler mente, at den største invasionstyrke ville lande i Pas-de-Calais frem for i Normandiet, hvilket førte til, at han beholdt to centrale pansrede divisioner der. Montgomery's efterretningschef, brigadegeneral Bill Williams, sagde senere, at uden bedrag kunne Normandiet invasion meget vel have været en katastrofe.

Alan Turing - Skoleelev (svar kommentar)

(1) The Daily Telegraph (13. november, 2013)

(2) Mavis Bately, interviewet af Sinclair McKay, for sin bog, Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010) side 23

(3) Martin Childs, Den uafhængige (24. november 2013)

(4) Mavis Bately, interviewet af Sinclair McKay, for sin bog, Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010) side 23

(5) Penelope Fitzgerald, Knox Brothers (2002) side 228-229

(6) Francis Harry Hinsley, Britisk efterretningstjeneste i anden verdenskrig: bind 1 (1979-1990) side 53

(7) Peter Calvocoressi, Top Secret Ultra (1980) siderne 34-37

(8) Mavis Bately, interviewet af Sinclair McKay, for sin bog, Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010) side 51

(9) The Daily Telegraph (13. november, 2013)

(10) Sinclair McKay, Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010) side 57

(11) Alfred Dilwyn Knox, brev til hovedkvarteret (august 1940)

(12) Mavis Bately, interviewet af Sinclair McKay, for sin bog, Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010) sider 195-196

(13) The Daily Telegraph (13. november, 2013)

(14) Sinclair McKay, Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010) side 196

(15) Martin Childs, Den uafhængige (24. november 2013)

(16) Sinclair McKay, Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010) side 132

(17) The Daily Telegraph (2. september, 2010)

(18) Richard Deacon, Spyclopaedia (1987) side 178

(19) The Daily Telegraph (13. november, 2013)

(20) Michael Howard, Britisk efterretningstjeneste i Anden Verdenskrig (1990) sider 106-107

(21) Anthony Cave Brown, Løgnenes livvagt (1976) side 672

(22) Christopher Andrew, Rigets forsvar: MI5's autoriserede historie (2009) side 305

(23) The Daily Telegraph (13. november, 2013)

(24) Mavis Bately, interviewet af Sinclair McKay, for sin bog, Det hemmelige liv i Bletchley Park (2010) side 292

(25) Michael Smith, Værgen (20. november, 2013)


Mavis Batey nekrolog

Mavis Batey, der er død 92 år gammel, blev ofte beskrevet som en af ​​de bedste kvindelige kodebrydere på Bletchley Park, men selvom hun altid var for beskeden til selv at sige det, reducerede dette hendes rolle. Hun var en af ​​de førende kodebrydere af begge køn og brød Enigma-chifferne, der førte til Royal Navy's sejr over Italien ved Matapan i 1941 og afgørende for succesen med D-dages landinger i 1944.

Hun var 19 år gammel, da hun blev sendt til Bletchley, det kodebrydende center i Buckinghamshire, i begyndelsen af ​​1940 og sat i arbejde i No 3 Cottage, i forskningsafsnittet, der brød ind i nye chiffer -systemer, der aldrig havde været brudt før. Det blev drevet af den veteraner kodebryder og den græske lærde Dilly Knox, der ikke kun havde brudt Zimmermann -telegrammet, der bragte USA ind i den første verdenskrig, men også havde sammensat grimerne fra den græske dramatiker Herodas fra papyri -fragmenter fundet i en Egyptisk hule.

I marts 1941 brød Mavis en række meddelelser, der var krypteret på den italienske flådes Enigma -maskine, der afslørede alle detaljerne om planerne om at bagholde en Royal Navy forsyningskonvoj, der færger forsyninger fra Egypten til Grækenland. Planerne gav admiral Andrew Cunningham, øverstkommanderende for Royal Navy's Middelhavsflåde, mulighed for at vende bordet på italienerne, der blev helt overrasket. Cunninghams skibe sank tre tunge krydsere og to estroyere med tabet af 3.000 italienske søfolk. Den italienske flåde konfronterede aldrig Royal Navy igen.

Cunningham besøgte sommerhuset for at takke Knox og hans team af unge kvindelige kodebrydere. "Sommerhusvæggen var lige blevet kalket," huskede Mavis. "Nogen lokkede admiralen til at læne sig op ad den, så han fik kalk på sin dejlige mørkeblå uniform. Vi forsøgte ikke at fnise, da han gik."

I et digt komponeret for at fejre sejren dedikerede Knox en strofe til Mavis: "Da Cunningham vandt i Matapan, ved Guds og Mavis nåde, Nigro simillima cygno est, ros Himlen, A meget rara avis. "(" Ligesom den sorte svane er hun, ros himlen, en meget sjælden fugl ".) Det var, sagde hun senere," meget hæsblæsende ting til en 19-årig ".

Formentlig var hendes vigtigste indbrud i den tyske hemmelige tjeneste Abwehr Enigma. Briterne havde fanget de fleste fjendtlige spioner sendt til Storbritannien og brugte dem til at indbringe falske oplysninger til tyskerne i en operation kendt som Double Cross System. Men de havde ingen måde at vide, om tyskerne troede på de falske oplysninger, fordi Abwehr Enigma blev anset for umulig at bryde. Knox og hans team troede på noget andet, og i december 1941 brød Mavis en besked om forbindelsen mellem Beograd og Berlin, der tillod dem at udarbejde ledninger til maskinen.

Fra det tidspunkt vidste MI5, at tyskerne troede på alt, hvad dobbeltagenterne fortalte dem, så de kunne levere en strøm af intelligensstykker, der tyder på, at de allierede havde en hel hær klar til at storme Pas de Calais.

Da de allierede landede i Normandiet den 6. juni 1944, insisterede en af ​​dobbeltagenterne på, at hovedkraften ville komme mod Calais. Hans rapport gik direkte til Adolf Hitler, som beordrede to centrale pansrede divisioner tilbage til området. Uden bruddet på Abwehr Enigma kunne D-dages bedrag aldrig have foregået, og disse divisioner kunne meget vel have hjulpet tyskerne med at smide de allierede styrker tilbage i havet.

Hun blev født som Mavis Lever, i Dulwich, det sydlige London, datter af en postarbejder og en syerske. Hun gik på Coloma Convent pigeskole i Croydon og læste tysk på University College London, da krigen brød ud.

Selvom billedet af excentriske kodebrydere fra krigen ofte er overdrevet, er det helt passende i tilfælde af Knox, hvis usædvanlige syn på træning i virkeligheden lod nye rekrutter synke eller svømme. I et kapitel om sit arbejde i bogen The Bletchley Park Codebreakers (2011) beskrev Mavis sin egen ankomst til sommerhuset, hvor Knox og hans team arbejdede, og hans første ord til hende.

"De var: 'Hej, vi går i stykker med maskiner. Har du en blyant? Her skal du prøve.' Jeg fik derefter en bunke fuldstændig vrøvl, der blev værre af Dillys kravler over det hele. ”Men jeg er bange for, at det hele er græsk for mig,” sagde jeg, hvorefter han brød ud i en glad latter og svarede: ”Jeg ville ønske, det var . '"

Mavis mødte sin mand, Keith Batey, en matematiker og selv en af ​​de førende indbrudseksperter på Bletchley, da han hjalp hende på en natvagt med at tackle et særligt vanskeligt kodebrudsproblem. De giftede sig i 1942. Efter krigen stoppede hun arbejdet med at opdrage en ung familie.

I 1960'erne, da hendes mand blev udnævnt til sekretær for brystet, økonomichefen ved Oxford University, boede de på universitetets Nuneham Park -ejendom, hvor haverne, der var anlagt i 1700 -tallet, var vokset til.

Undersøgelse af ejendommen, en proces, der udnyttede forskningsfærdigheder godt og en vilje til at finde den sandhed, der blev udviklet på Bletchley, førte Mavis til en interesse i historiske haver. Hun blev en uhyre inspirerende kraft bag bevægelser fra Garden History Society, kampagnen for at beskytte landdistrikterne England og engelsk arv for at beskytte dem.

She worked with the Historic Buildings Council to compile what became the English Heritage Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England and was honorary secretary of the Garden History Society from 1971 until 1985, then its honorary president.

Mavis wrote numerous books on historical gardens, including Jane Austen and the English Landscape (1996) and Alexander Pope: Poetry and Landscape (1999), and a wonderfully affectionate biography of Knox, Dilly: The Man Who Broke Enigmas (2010).

She was awarded the Veitch memorial medal of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1985 and two years later was appointed MBE for services to the preservation and conservation of historic gardens.

Keith died in 2010. Mavis is survived by her three children, Elizabeth, Christopher and Deborah.

Mavis Lilian Batey, codebreaker, garden historian and author, born 5 May 1921 died 12 November 2013


Dilly : The Man who Broke Enigmas

Mavis Batey was born Mavis Lever, in Dulwich, south London, England on May 5, 1921. She was reading German at University College London when World War II started. During the war, she was one of the leading codebreakers, breaking the Enigma ciphers that led to the Royal Navy's victory over Italy at Matapan in 1941 and to the success of the D-day landings in 1944. In the 1960s, her husband was appointed the chief financial officer of Oxford University and they lived on the university's Nuneham Park estate where the gardens, landscaped in the 18th century, had become overgrown. While researching the estate, she developed an interest in historical gardens. She wrote numerous books on historical gardens including Jane Austen and the English Landscape and Alexander Pope: Poetry and Landscape, and a biography of Dilly Knox entitled Dilly: The Man who Broke Enigmas. She was awarded the Veitch Memorial Medal of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1985 and was appointed MBE for services to the preservation and conservation of historic gardens in 1987. She died on November 12, 2013 at the age of 92.


Mavis Batey: Bletchley Codebreaker, Garden Historian

In 1960 Mavis Batey read that the film Sink The Bismarck was playing at the local cinema. Her son Christopher would enjoy it, she thought – and he did. But she had not thought about her own reactions. At the end of the film set on a choppy black and white North Sea, the Bismarck is caught by a circle of British ships, and its men burned or trapped in freezing water below deck:

‘I saw it go down and I really did feel quite sick. I put my head down and my son said to me after a while, “It’s alright Mummy, it’s gone down…” He didn’t know that I was thinking how awful it was that one’s breaking of a message could send so many people to the bottom’.

The treat of my week – and the treat I’d like to share with readers of this newsletter is Jean Stone’s new biography of Mavis Batey, Secretary of the Garden History Society from 1972. The story is so gripping that earlier today I missed my stop on the train. Twice.

On 27 th May 1941 Batey was in the dining room at Bletchley Park when the radio announced the sinking of the battleship terrorising the Atlantic convoys. The room cheered. That night in the cinema in 1960 she could not yet tell her son that she was one of the code-breakers of Bletchley Park in the film Enigma (2001) she would be played by Kate Winslet. When war began, she was recruited as a student studying German at University, good at crosswords, and with a questioning mind.

And Mavis won the Battle of Matapan. Late one night in March 1941 her curiosity at one Italian signaller’s erratic punctuation broke the Italians’ Enigma Code off the Island of Rhodes, three British battleships surprised an Italian fleet. Three thousand Italian sailors died the eastern Mediterranean was won. To Churchill it was the greatest naval victory since Trafalgar. Batey missed the last train home to her lodgings, and was woken on the platform at Bletchley by the wet hiss of the milk train.

In 1965 she and her husband Keith – a fellow code-breaker, now working for the University of Oxford – rented a cottage at Nuneham Courtenay, an estate on a slope above the Thames, ten miles from the spires. It was the abandoned gardens of the 18 th -century house which inspired Batey to become a garden historian.

Nuneham Courtenay: the garden is now cared for by the Centre of Global Retreat and has been restored under the guidance of Dr Richard Bisgrove.

Kenneth Grahame once said to his anxious and talkative wife Elspeth: ‘You like people. I like places’. It’s a question. Do places, or people, intrigue us more as we grow older? But gardens, and worked or designed landscapes, were for Batey where places and people come together. And Nuneham is a particularly intriguing place.

In the 1750s the 1 st Earl Harcourt, a courtier to George I and investor in the East India Company, built a big stone house on the hill above the Thames. In order to create a serene, green parkland he demolished the medieval village and built model cottages for his tenants, each identical. A Picturesque mischief today (the A407 runs past their doorsteps) at the time the re-housing was as didactic as a 1960s slum clearance.

Batey’s deepest academic love was English poetry, and she connected the setting of her new home to Oliver Goldsmith’s poem The Deserted Village (1770), which laments the destruction of a community, its neighbours evicted by a nobleman of ‘silken sloth’ who wishes to create a parkland, pristine, but without people – or activity. (It is Kim Wilkie, the landscape architect who worked with with Batey on the masterful Thames Landscape Strategy, who underlines that Alexander Pope asked garden-makers to consult the ‘genius’ og ‘use’ of the place). Fifty villages were evicted to make landscape gardens in 18 th -century England it was Batey who identified Goldsmith’s subject as Nuneham in her first publication on garden history.

Nuneham Courtenay

Nuneham’s landscape reveals a second story. In 1783 the 2 nd Earl commissioned Paul Sandby to depict the ruins of the old. At first sight, the prints appear to be handsome examples of the contemporary taste for Pictueresque ruins melted into Nature. In fact, these are the son’s critique of his father’s destruction. The 2 nd Earl was a radical, who supported the American colonists in a war in which his brother was a Redcoat General. In gardens, that liberalism was expressed by making together with the poet William Mason a garden of flowers, its beds set apart from his father’s vast lawns. A statue of Rousseau declared his philosophy. To make a naturalistic garden of flowers in 1772 was, Batey understood, ‘without precedent’. It was a rejection of the past, a patricide in plants.

It was this garden, not the park, which captivated Batey. ‘It was derelict. Garden ornaments were buried in the grass. I had to cut my way through, almost losing my small daughter in the process. It kept telling me that someone was trying to say something in that place’.

Batey would go on to establish garden history as a discipline and to achieve protection for historic gardens within the planning system. When Painshill Park, the 18 th -century landscape close to the M25, was at risk of becoming a nursery for Christmas trees, she discovered that in 1946 Hugh Dalton, the Chancellor and rambler, had sold war surplus goods to enable the purchase of land as war memorials the Fund, she deduced, had been mislaid.

In fact, the code-breaker who located the Bismarck through a single word was Jane Fawcett, who became an architectural conservationist and Director of The Victorian Society. The two met again at Mavis’ 90 th birthday party in the walled garden designed by Lady Egremont at Petworth House and Park, under what is the most eloquent wisteria walk in England.

Mavis Batey at her 90th birthday party, sat with her friend and fellow garden historian Ted Fawcett

What Stone shows us is that code-breaker and garden historian were one. To understand German and Italian signals required curiosity at the human unpredictabilities behind the codes. (And why did the 2 nd Earl Harcourt reject his Republicanism and welcome the King to visit?). And garden history was about unlocking puzzles. This is what she told students:

‘Physical evidence through survey, aerial photography and excavation was of first importance. Archive sources included household regulations, estate accounts and inventories deeds, leases, sale particulars maps and plans including estate enclosure and tithe family topographical paintings and drawings architectural drawings and plans building contracts, oral reminiscences, letters and diaries. It is essential to find out everything possible about the owner of the house… Where did the owner get his money from? Why did he move or enlarge his house or park? What sort of man was he and who were his friends and associates and what clubs did he belong to? What books did he subscribe to and were any dedicated to him? If married what were his wife’s family’s interest and ownership?’

And it is putting such evidence together which is the thrill of garden history.

I read this excellent book at the same time as the National Trust published its self-expose of properties caught up with the slave trade, slavery, and colonialism. It kicks off with a dismissal of the V&A’s ‘Destruction of the Country House’ in 1974, without pausing to recognise that that first generation of conservationists of gardens and houses, big and small, were trouble-makers taking on the system. That said, it is not as provocative as the press has suggested: a cut’n’paste of existing publications on British history, it will not shock anyone who has studied A level history in the last 30 years, or ever read a book by William Dalrymple.

Hvad er depressing is the laziness of the application of history to individual people, and places. Or, put another way, the absence of curiosity at the twists and turns, hillocks and hollows of the human past which enlivened Batey’s reading of designed landscapes. She understood the pain of the past more deeply than anyone who reads this cartoon of right’n’wrong it is only by understanding the choices which people make that the past comes to life. Of the young men drowned in the Bismarck’s coffered hold she continued: ‘That was war and that was the way we had to play it. If we thought about it too much we should never have been able to cope’.


Anden Verdenskrigs database


ww2dbase Mavis Lilian Lever was born in May 1921 in Dulwich, South London in England, United Kingdom. Her father worked in the local postal sorting office and her mother was a seamstress. Despite her humble background Mavis was highly educated having won entry into the Coloma Convent School - a free but academically selective Grammar School in West Croydon where she studied German as one of her languages.

ww2dbase The family normally took their annual holiday in Bournemouth on the south coast, but during the 1930s Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler's propaganda minister, created a programme of cheap holidays in Germany under the title of Kraft durch Freude ("Strength through Joy") and in 1936, the fifteen-year-old Mavis persuaded her mother that this year they should go to the Rhineland. During this holiday they joined a crowd of happy German workers, largely indoctrinated into the myths and legends of German heroes. Mavis was enthralled by it all and resolved to study German literature in her sixth form.

ww2dbase A little later Mavis earned a place at University College London (UCL) where she studied German Romanticism under Professor Leonard Willoughby who had been one of Alfred Dillwyn "Dilly" Knox's (q.v.) codebreaking colleagues in the Admiralty during the First World War. She had planned to go to Tübingen University in Germany for a term in 1938 but, with war increasingly likely, she switched to Zurich University instead. She returned to UCL when Germany manned the Siegfried Line of fortifications between France and Germany to find they were about to be evacuated to Aberystwyth. Wanting to do more for the war effort than simply read poetry in Wales, she briefly considered training as a nurse but was quickly told, that with her knowledge of German, she might be of more use to the Foreign Office.

ww2dbase After an interview at the Foreign Office, Mavis was selected as a suitable candidate for a job in intelligence and sent over to the dingy Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) Headquarters at 54 Broadway, then opposite London's St. James's underground station. In her new job Mavis was employed to examine commercial codes and peruse the personal columns in The Times for coded spy messages. In May 1940, after showing promise with a piece of smart lateral thinking that uncovered the origin of an illegal shipment to Germany, Mavis was plucked out and sent to the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park to become a German linguist in a new research team being set up by the eccentric codebreaker Dilly Knox.

ww2dbase The absent-minded Dilly Knox, who had broken the Spanish and Italian Enigma Machine (q.v.) codes before the war, had threatened to resign when his staff were hived off to Bletchley's Hut 6 (to examine intercepted German Army and Luftwaffe Enigma messages) or Hut 4's Naval Section. Commander Alistair Denniston, the head of GC&SC, stubbornly refused to accept Dilly's resignation, rightly telling him that he had unique qualities which were vital to the war effort. Instead his talents would be put to use breaking new codes, leaving Hut 6 to do the day-to-day breaking of intercepts. Commander Denniston reopened "The Cottage", a building adjoining the Park's mansion, and put Dilly in charge of a small research section looking into unbroken machine codes that Hut 6 (run by dynamic pipe-smoking Gordon Welchman with his former student, the Chess Master Stuart Milner-Barry as his deputy) didn't have time to deal with.

ww2dbase When 19-year-old Mavis Lever arrived at Bletchley Park she was placed into Dilly's exclusively female section as one of several German linguists. She was billeted on a farm at Leighton Buzzard where the farmer's wife immediately recognized that her war work was of a secretive nature and did not ask any questions. She also appreciated the way that Mavis would help around the farm during her days off. Almost all of Bletchley's people were paid a pittance Mavis initially earned thirty shillings a week from which she had to pay twenty-one shillings for her lodgings.

ww2dbase Dilly's unusual views on training left new recruits to either sink or swim, but ensured that Mavis and the other girls would develop an ability to think laterally. He encouraged his younger staff to look for patterns or predictability in the Enigma codes that might improve the chances of those codes being cracked. He soon recognized that Mavis had exactly the right mental approach towards the exhausting work, teaching her how to crack codes by hand – a system using a form of slide-rule known as "rodding".

ww2dbase The month after Mavis arrived at Bletchley Park, Italy entered the war and, despite having only the scantiest knowledge of the language, she was put to work on the Italian Navy's Enigma code, trying out likely forms of words to see if she could identify set formulae across multiple messages. Mavis soon proved particularly adept at making up in intuition what she lacked in experience and, at one point, recognized that one enemy cryptographer had a girlfriend called Rosa, whose name he habitually used when creating his codes.

ww2dbase Dilly Knox was keen to learn if the Italian codes he had broken during the Spanish Civil War were still in use, but it soon became apparent that the messages were completely different and none of his "cribs" (an intelligent guess by looking for patterns in the coded text) were of any use. Then, alone one night in September 1940, Mavis made a crucial breakthrough. When Dilly arrived on the next morning he was so delighted when shown her decrypted text that he immediately went to Commander Denniston to insist that Mavis be given a promotion and wage rise. He also took her out to dinner to celebrate. In the months that followed Mavis would become ever more familiar with the styles of individual enemy Enigma operators, eventually being able to determine that, in fact, two of them had girlfriends called Rosa. Based on what she learned, Mavis was able to build up a comprehensive picture of the current Italian code and soon she and her colleagues at Bletchley Park were routinely reading Italian messages.

ww2dbase Working as one of Dilly's assistants could be demanding but also very exhilarating. Mavis and her colleague, mathematician Margaret Rock, frequently found it difficult to keep up with his constant flow of brilliant ideas of ways into the enemy's codes. Then on one night shift she noticed something wrong with a message. There did not appear to be a single letter "L" in the message. This, she concluded, was from a mistake made by the Enigma machine operator which might, she hoped, permit the codebreakers to break into the code. Dashing across to Hut 6 she found one of the mathematicians who volunteered to help her. Together they sat drinking coffee through the night trying to work out the wiring of that Enigma machine's rotors. The helpful mathematician was Keith Batey, her future husband. Thanks to Mavis, with a bit of help from Keith, the Admiralty were now able to keep on top of the Italian Navy's communications and, in so doing, brought about one of the Royal Navy's greatest victories during the Second World War.

ww2dbase In late March 1941 Mavis decoded a message which suggested that the Italian Fleet was preparing to put to sea in three days. The Italian Navy's plan, subsequently revealed from other decrypted messages, was to attack British troopships and their token escorts off the Greek coast. This discovery was passed to the Mediterranean Commander-in-Chief, Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham, in Alexandria, Egypt, via the Operational Intelligence Centre deep under the Admiralty. Admiral Cunningham was, at first, sceptical about the intelligence (known collectively as "Ultra"), but pressure from above finally convinced him that the intelligence was reliable. The outcome resulted in the defeat of Admiral Angelo Iachino's Fleet at the Battle of Cape Matapan (28-29 March 1941). Outnumbered, outgunned and without radar, the Italians, in a running fight during the night, lost three well-armed armoured cruisers, the Zara, Pola and Fiume together with two destroyers and the loss of 2,400 Italian sailors. Additionally the modern battleship Vittorio Veneto was damaged by a torpedo-bomber from HMS Formidable which holed the hull, damaged a propeller and brought the battleship to a halt. After several hours of frantic pumping and hasty repair work, the Vittorio Veneto was on the move again making her way slowly back to Taranto. For the loss of only one British torpedo bomber the Italian's Regia Marina was effectively put out of the war, making only one more appearance before surrendering to Admiral Cunningham in 1943.

ww2dbase Mavis married Keith Batey in November 1942 at Marylebone Registry Office just before Keith was about to depart to Canada to undertake flying training. Peter Twinn, who worked with Alan Turing, served as the best man. Keith Batey had been studying mathematics at Trinity College, Oxford, when recruited by his lecturer, Gordon Welchman, and brought into Bletchley Park to bolster the codebreaking capability of Knox's ISK section. But, like many young men, he felt that he should be playing a more active part in the war instead of having a safe job in the English countryside. Not surprisingly his superiors were not enthusiastic about risking the potential capture one of their experts, and he was therefore refused entry into the RAF (although permitted to train as a Fleet Air Arm pilot where, they expected, should he be shot down he would very likely drown in the sea).

ww2dbase Since the beginning of the war every German spy sent to Britain had been captured and turned. They were now being used to transmit false information to the enemy through the "Double Cross" operation headed by Colonel Tommy "Tar" Robertson of MI5. What the Allied High Command needed to know urgently was whether these fake spy reports were being believed in Berlin. This required the Bletchley codebreakers to break into the sophisticated Abwehr Enigma, which many thought to be unbreakable. By now Dilly Knox was extremely ill with terminal stomach cancer and only made fleeting visits to the Park. Mavis, aged just twenty, would find herself in charge at "The Cottage". On 8 December, 1941, she successfully broke into an Abwehr coded message on a link between Belgrade and Berlin, thereby allowing the codebreakers to construct one of the machine's rotors. Commander Denniston wrote to Stewart Menzies, head of MI6, to let him know of the achievement. Later, she broke another Abwehr machine, the GGG which was used near the Spanish border. From then on, Bletchley was able to read all the high-level messages between the German Intelligence officers running the double agents.

ww2dbase An early success occurred during Operation Mincemeat (generally credited to have been devised by "James Bond" author Ian Fleming), a devious plan to convince the Germans that an Allied Invasion of southern Europe would be aimed at Greece and Sardinia, Italy rather than Sicily, Italy as was intended. Following the death of Dilly Knox his ISK research section had been taken over by codebreaker Peter Twinn with Mavis Lever as a key member of his team. The Abwehr officer in Madrid, Spain were anxious to find out if the documents washed ashore with the body of "Major Martin" were authentic. When, on 14 May 1943, the team decrypted a message from Berlin that indicated the Germans considered the documents to be genuine, the "Double Cross Committee" knew that the Germans had been completely taken in by the deception.

ww2dbase The knowledge that the Germans were accepting all the fake reports provided by their spies in England was absolutely critical for the success of Operation Overlord, the D-Day landings in Normandy, France. By June 1944, Hitler and his generals had been so convinced that the Allied invasion would come in Pas de Calais area that they kept most of their best troops there, expecting an invasion that was not going to come.

ww2dbase At the end of the war Bletchley Park was closed down. Mavis and a number of other girls (including Alan Turing's former fiancé, Joan Clarke) were redeployed to the new Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) at Eastcote in Middlesex (formerly RAF Eastcote which had been an outstation of BP) to work on Russian codes. Mavis left GCHQ in 1947 to start a family. When Keith was appointed to a post at the High Commission in Ottawa, Canada she went with him. With two young daughters and a son Mavis chose to become a stay-at-home parent. In the 1960s Keith became the Chief Financial Officer at Oxford University and the family moved to a house in the university grounds. It was here that Mavis began work on a restoration of the eighteenth-century gardens, which developed into a future career as an expert on garden history.

ww2dbase Mavis Batey would write many books on garden history including Jane Austen and the English Landscape og Alexander Pope: Thee poet and the landscape, plus an affectionate biography of her old boss, Dilly: The Man who broke Enigma. She was honoured with an MBE in 1985 for her work on protecting historic gardens, having received no recognition for her many remarkable achievements at Bletchley Park during the war. Keith Batey passed away in 2010 and Mavis died in 2013.

ww2dbase Kilder:
Michael Smith: The Debs of Bletchley Park (Aurum Press, 2015)
Michael Smith: The Secrets of Station X (Biteback Publishing, 2011)
Michael Kerrigan: How Bletchley Park Won World War II (Amber Books, 2018)
Charles Stuart: Ultra at the Battle of Matapan (War Monthly Magazine, August 1981)
Max Hastings: Den hemmelige krig (William Collins Publishers, 2015)
Sinclair McKay: Bletchley Park-The Secret Archives (Autum Press, 2016)
Katharine Marsh (Editor): Story of World War II (Future PLC, Bournemouth, 2018)

Last Major Revision: Jul 2020

5 May 1921 Mavis Lever was born in Dulwich, London, England, United Kingdom.
8. december 1941 Mavis Batey successfully broke into a German Abwehr coded message on a link between Belgrade, Yugoslavia and Berlin, Germany, thereby allowing the codebreakers to construct one of the Enigma Machine.
12 Nov 2013 Mavis Batey passed away.

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Regency Gardens

First published 1995 in Great Britain by Princes Risborough (Bucks.) : Shire Publications Ltd.

ISBN: 0747802890, 9780747802891

96 pages lavishly illustrated with photos as well as period drawings and paintings in both color and bl&w

Excerpt (Introduction):

Eighteenth-century taste was aristocratic, sanctioned by such arbiters as Lord Burlington, Addison, Pope, Hogarth and Burke. Regency taste was more flexible and intuitive and embraced a much wider and more democratic society. In place of pediments, porticoes and Palladian stairways, Regency houses had striped canopies, verandahs, balconies and ornamental ironwork and, as an accompaniment to the light playfulness of the architecture, more 'dressed' grounds near the house, with sinuous shrubberies, flowerbeds, trellis and ornate garden seats. Garden design no longer depended on extent of property for effect, as in the days of 'Capability' Brown, and estate priorities had to be reassessed to meet the cost of living in the Napoleonic Wars and increased taxation.

Anmeldelse

Gardens became increasingly important in the Regency era. The typical open landscape garden we today refer to as an English Garden fell out of favor and people once again discovered flowers! Humphry Repton was the garden designer in the forefront of the movement turning open lawns into garden 'rooms' through the use of shrubs, thickets and herbaceous borders. All was laid out in a pleasingly manner reminiscent of classical paintings, the pinnacle of the cultivation of the picturesque.

This and much more we learn from Mavis Batey's discourse in Regency Gardens. She manages on a scant ninety-six pages to cover her subject well. We discover Nash, the premier architect of the day, and follow along the building of the Brighton Pavilion, visit the gardens of stately homes, such as Mount Edgcumbe and Drummond Castle, view the development of Regent's Park, the seaside squares at Kemp Town and the layout of the first public park. All this lavishly illustrated with paintings, old photographs, drawing and etchings that makes the period come alive.

If you want an overview of the movers and shakers of the time, the most influential gardening literature and the best examples of the style picturesque that dominated the Regency era, this is the book for you. The text is more geared toward those with an interest in gardens and gardening, while the many illustrations makes the book accessible to all.


Dilly : The Man Who Broke Enigmas

The highly eccentric Alfred Dillwyn Knox, known simply as 'Dilly', was one of the leading figures in the British codebreaking successes of the two world wars. During the first, he was the chief codebreaker in the Admiralty, breaking the German Navy's main flag code, before going on to crack the German Enigma ciphers during the Second World War at Bletchley Park.

Here, he enjoyed the triumphant culmination of his life's work: a reconstruction of the Enigma machine used by the Abwehr, the German Secret Service. This kept the British fully aware of what the German commanders knew about Allied plans, allowing MI5 and MI6 to use captured German spies to feed false information back to the Nazi spymasters.

Mavis Batey was one of 'Dilly's girls', the young female codebreakers who helped him to break the various Enigma ciphers. She was called upon to advise Kate Winslet, star of the film Enigma, on what it was like to be one of the few female codebreakers at Bletchley Park. This gripping new edition of Batey's critically acclaimed book reveals the vital part Dilly played in the deception operation that ensured the success of the D-Day landings, altering the course of the Second World War.


Mavis Lilian (Lever) Batey (1921 - 2013)

Mavis Lilian Batey was an English code-breaker during World War II. Her work at Bletchley Park was one of the keys to the success of D-Day. She later became a garden historian, who campaigned to save historic parks and gardens, and an author.

Mavis Lilian Lever was born in Dulwich, London on 5 May 1921. Her birth was registered in Camberwell in the second quarter of 1921 [1] . She was the daughter of Fred Lever, a postal worker, and Lily E. Day, a seamstress.

Mavis married another codebreaker, Keith Batey, in Marylebone, London in 1942 [2] .

Batey studied German at University and was recruited to work at Bletchley Park at the outset of World War II. She played a major part in the breaking of the Enigma machine.

After a period in the diplomatic service, Batey dedicated herself to saving historic parks and gardens. For this work, she was awarded the Veitch Memorial Medal in 1985, and made a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in 1987.


Obituary: Mavis Batey

Mavis Batey was a garden historian and conservationist, but unknown to many until recently, was also one of the leading female Bletchley Park codebreakers whose skills in decoding the German Enigma ciphers proved decisive at various points of the war. On the outbreak of war she broke off her German studies to enlist as a nurse, but was told she would be more use as a linguist. She had hoped to be a Mata Hari-esque spy, seducing Prussian officers, but, she said, “I don’t think either my legs or my German were good enough, because they sent me to the Government Code & Cipher School.”

Batey was the last of the Bletchley “break-in” experts – codebreakers who cracked new codes and ciphers. She unravelled the Enigma ciphers that led to victory in the Battle of Cape Matapan in 1941, the Navy’s first fleet action since Trafalgar, and played a key role in breaking the astonishingly complex Abwehr (German secret service) Enigma. Without this, the Double Cross deception plan which ensured the success of D-Day could not have gone ahead.

Born in Dulwich, south-east London, in 1921, Mavis Lilian Lever was the daughter of a postal worker and a seamstress. The family holidayed annually in Bournemouth, but on passing “O” Level German, she persuaded her parents to take her to the Rhineland, which was to spark her interest in the country. She was reading German romanticism at University College London when war broke out. Recruited to the government agency, she worked briefly in London checking the personal columns of The Times for coded messages. Having shown promise, she was sent to Bletchley Park to work with Alfred “Dilly” Knox, whose research unit led the way in breaking Enigma. When she arrived, he greeted her with the words, “Hello, we’re breaking machines. Have you got a pencil? Here, have a go.” After his initial success with Enigma, Knox, the archetypal British eccentric, was working on new, and as yet uncracked, variants.

Batey began working on the updated Italian Naval Enigma machine, checking all new traffic and even the wheels, cogs and wiring to see how it was constructed. She reconstructed the wiring from the machine to discover a major machine flaw that helped her team break even more coded messages. “You had to work it all out yourself from scratch,” she recalled, “but gained the ability to think laterally.” In March 1941 she deciphered a message, “Today’s the day minus three,” which told them that the Italian Navy was up to something.

Batey and her colleagues worked for three days and nights until she decoded “a very, very long message” detailing the Italian fleet’s proposed interception of a British supply convey en route from Egypt to Greece it included their plan of attack, strength – cruisers, submarines – locations and times. “It was absolutely incredible that they should spell it all out,” she recalled. The message was passed to Admiral Andrew Cunningham, commander of the Mediterranean Fleet, giving him the intelligence he needed to intercept the Italians.

He deceived the Japanese consul in Alexandria, who was passing information to the Germans, into thinking he was having the weekend off to play golf. Then under cover of darkness he set sail with three battleships, four cruisers and an aircraft carrier. Over 27-28 March 1941, his forces staged a series of surprise attacks. The Italians lost three cruisers, two destroyers and 3,000 sailors in the Battle of Matapan, never again dared to sail close to the Royal Navy. Cunningham went to Bletchley to thank Knox’s unit, ISK (Intelligence Section Knox).

Arguably, ISK’s most important coup was to break into the Enigma cipher. MI5 and MI6 had captured and identified most of Germany’s spies in Britain and in neutral Lisbon and Madrid, and had “turned” them, using them to feed false information to Germany about the Allies’ proposed invasion of France, in an operation known as the Double-Cross System.

However, no one knew if the Germans believed the intelligence, because Enigma had proven unbreakable. This machine had many millions of settings, as it used four rotors, rather than the usual three, which rotated randomly with no predictable pattern.

Working with Knox and Margaret Rock, Batey tested out every possibility, and in December 1941 broke a message on the link between Berlin and Belgrade, making it possible to reconstruct one of the rotors. Within days, ISK had broken the Enigma – and days later Batey cracked a second Abwehr cipher machine, the GGG, which confirmed that Germany believed the Double Cross intelligence.

British agents fed a stream of false intelligence to German command, convincing it that a US Army group was forming in East Anglia and Kent. Hitler believed the main invasion force would land at Pas-de-Calais rather than in Normandy, leading him to retain two key armoured divisions there. Montgomery’s head of intelligence, Brigadier Bill Williams, later said that without the deception, the Normandy invasion could well have been a disaster.

Mavis married Keith Batey, one of the Bletchley “break-in” experts, after he helped her with a particularly difficult problem. She recalled, “Dilly made no objections to my having sought such help and when I told him I was going to marry the ‘clever mathematician from hut 6’ he gave us a lovely wedding present.”

After the war she launched herself into researching landscape and garden history. She became the driving force behind moves by the Campaign to Protect Rural England, English Heritage and the Garden History Society to preserve historical gardens. She was the latter’s president from 1985 until her death. It was not until the 1970s that the couple were able to tell their own children about their codebreaking. She remarked that her children had always wondered why she was so good at Scrabble.

She was awarded the Royal Horticultural Society’s Veitch Memorial Medal in 1985, and appointed MBE for her conservation of historic gardens. Her books included Jane Austen and the English Landscape (1996) Alexander Pope: Poetry and Landscape (1999) and an affectionate biography of Knox, Dilly: The Man Who Broke Enigmas (2011). In 2001, she advised Kate Winslet on what it was like to be a female codebreaker, for the film Enigma.

Mavis Lilian Lever, codebreaker and conservationist: born London 5 May 1921 MBE 1987 married 1942 Keith Batey (died 2010 two daughters, one son) died 11 November 2013.


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Kommentarer:

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