Adolphus Busch

Adolphus Busch


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Adolphus Buschblev født i Mainz, Tyskland, i 1839. I en alder af atten udvandrede Busch til USA.

Busch sluttede sig til St. Louis bryggeriet ejet af Eberhard Anheuser. Han gjorde det godt i branchen og var ansvarlig for banebrydende pasteurisering af øl. Han etablerede også Budweiser -mærket og fungerede som præsident for Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association (1879-1913). Adolphus Busch døde i 1913.


Anheuser-Busch-dynastiets tragiske historie

"Når du siger Bud, har du sagt mange ting, ingen andre kan sige. Når du siger Budweiser, har du sagt det hele!" Hvis du er gammel nok til at huske denne jingle fra 1970, er du gammel nok til at nippe til en kold og summe den episke "When You Say Bud" -sang, mens du læser denne. Ikke overraskende har den selvudnævnte "King of Beers" -brygger faktisk eksisteret i generationer, helt tilbage til 1850'erne. To mænd, Eberhard Anheuser og Adolphus Busch, gik sammen om at omdanne Anheuser-Busch fra et simpelt kvarterbryggeri til den velkendte ølproducent, Amerika kender og elsker i dag.

Anheuser-Busch har virkelig længe været et familiefirma. Forfatter Sanford Wexler siger, at ansættelsen af ​​administrerende direktør Patrick Stokes i 2002 var første gang i virksomhedens historie, at der blev taget ansvar for en anden end et familiemedlem. Men med en ud af hver to øl, der sælges i Amerika med et Anheuser-Busch-mærke, forbliver konglomeratet klart på toppen, fra imponerende salg til sine legendariske Super Bowl-annoncer, der har indgroet sig i amerikansk kultur.

En sådan berømmelse har imidlertid ikke været uden dens andel af tragedier, da generationer af Anheuser-Busch-familierne har udholdt deres egne personlige problemer. Læs videre for den tragiske historie om Anheuser-Busch-dynastiet.


Her er den sande historie bag denne Adolphus Busch Budweiser Super Bowl -reklame

På nuværende tidspunkt er dette års Budweiser -reklame under Super Bowl blevet den mest sete online af alle annoncer under årets store spil.

Annoncen følger historien om en ung Adolphus Busch, da han tager sin vej fra Tyskland til St. Louis, før han startede Anheuser-Busch. Det er en feel-good-historie om immigranters bidrag til det amerikanske samfund, især på et tidspunkt, hvor nogle immigranter til USA føler sig under angreb.

På torsdag St. Louis on the Air, hørte vi fra Andrew Wanko, en offentlig historiker med Missouri History Museum, om den faktiske historie om Adolphus Busch, Eberhard Anheuser, begyndelsen af ​​Anheuser-Busch og fremkomsten af ​​Budweiser-mærket.

"Det er et kæmpe Hollywood -spring væk fra den rigtige Adolphus Busch, men hans virkelige liv er ikke mindre fascinerende," sagde Wanko, der for nylig udgav et blogindlæg med titlen "Var Budweiser virkelig født på den hårde måde?"

Reklamen kortlægger de forskellige bedrifter af Busch, når han rejser fra Tyskland til New Orleans og endelig bosætter sig i St. Louis. Det migrationsmønster handler "om, hvor den sande historie stopper," sagde Wanko.

Busch blev født i en velhavende familie i Mainz, Tyskland. Han havde studeret i Bruxelles og blev betragtet som veluddannet.

Da han besluttede at komme til USA, havde tre af hans brødre allerede taget skridtet og skrev om, hvor vidunderligt det var her. En af hans brødre havde endda allerede oprettet et bryggeri i Washington, Missouri.

Busch kom dog ikke til USA med det formål at være en brygger. Han kom til at blive en forretningsmand, sagde Wanko, men var ikke sikker på, hvad det ville indebære.

Wanko sagde, at Busch med egne ord skrev, at da han kom til St. Louis, havde han et betydeligt familietilskud, der blev fodret med ham, og at han "brugte sine første dage på at loafere, stifte bekendtskab og have det sjovt."

"Dette gjorde bestemt ikke reklamen," sagde Wanko.

Hvad angår Buschs vovede spring fra en flammende flodbåd?

"Det var nok ikke hans virkelige oplevelse, de ville have vidst, hvis han havde lidt sådan noget," sagde Wanko. "For tusinder af andre immigranter var truslen om en eksplosion med dampbåde meget reel og en meget skrækkelig mulighed."

Busch tog til sidst et partnerskab i et bryggeriforsyningsfirma i St. Louis, hvilket ville have været en lukrativ forretning i 1860, da St. Louis var hjemsted for omkring 40 bryggerier.

Det var gennem dette job, at Busch til sidst mødte Anheuser, der ejede et bryggeri, der kæmpede. Busch blev forelsket i Anheusers datter, Lilly, og de to ville til sidst gifte sig. Et par år efter gik Busch på arbejde på sin svigerfars bryggeri, ikke fordi han elskede øl (han drak berømt vin det meste af sit liv og påstod øl at være "slop"), men fordi han så en lukrativ forretning lejlighed.

Resten er faktisk historie.

Lyt, mens Wanko sætter resten af ​​rekorden lige på Anheuser-Busch-oprindelseshistorien og svarer på dine spørgsmål om Budweiser:

St. Louis on the Air bringer dig historierne om St. Louis og de mennesker, der bor, arbejder og skaber i vores region. St. Louis on the Air -vært Don Marsh og producenter Mary Edwards, Alex Heuer og Kelly Moffitt give dig de oplysninger, du har brug for til at træffe velinformerede beslutninger og holde kontakten med vores mangfoldige og pulserende St. Louis -region.


Horse-story In the Making: The Budweiser Clydesdales

Fra forbudstiden til Super Bowl -reklamer er der måske ikke noget mere ikonisk i Budweisers historie end dets team af Clydesdale -heste. Clydesdales har mere end bare en maskot været en integreret del af Anheuser-Busch i mere end 80 år.

Budweiser Clydesdales historie

I april 1933 overraskede August A. Busch, Jr. og Adolphus Busch III deres far, August A. Busch, Sr. med en gave fra et seks-hestet Clydesdale-træk til minde om ophævelse af forbud mod øl.

Virksomheden realiserede marketingpotentialet for en hestetrukket ølvogn og arrangerede også at få en anden seks-hesters Clydesdale-stang sendt til New York for at markere begivenheden. Clydesdales trak en mængde tusinder på vej til Empire State Building. Efter en lille ceremoni blev en sag om Budweiser forelagt den tidligere guvernør Alfred E. Smith i påskønnelse af hans mangeårige tjeneste i kampen mod forbud.

Denne hitch fortsatte på en rundvisning i New England og de mellematlantiske stater, spændende tusinder, før de stoppede i Washington, DC, i april 1933 for at genopføre leveringen af ​​en af ​​de første sager om Budweiser til præsident Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Kort efter at stikken først blev introduceret, steg seks-hestes Clydesdale-holdet til otte. Den 30. marts 1950, til minde om åbningen af ​​bryggeriet Anheuser-Busch Newark, blev en dalmatiner introduceret som Budweiser Clydesdales maskot. Nu rejser en dalmatiner med hver af Clydesdale -stikkene.

Clydesdales i dag

I dag er Budweiser Clydesdales fortsat et varigt symbol på bryggerens arv, tradition og engagement i kvalitet, hvilket gør hundredvis af optrædener over hele landet hvert år.
For at forberede Clydesdales ordentligt til deres optrædener, overvåger et team af dedikerede behandlere deres pleje. Ekspertplejere rejser på vejen med trækket mindst 10 måneder ud af året. Et andet hold fører tilsyn med deres kost, hver hitch -hest vil forbruge op til 20 til 25 liter fuldkorn, mineraler og vitaminer, 50 til 60 pund hø og op til 30 liter vand på en varm dag.

Når det er tid til at rejse til et udseende, transporteres 10 heste, den berømte røde, hvide og guldølvogn og andet vigtigt udstyr i tre 50-fods traktortrailere. Kameraer monteret i trailerne er forbundet til skærme i førerhusene, der gør det muligt for chaufførerne at holde et vågent øje med deres dyrebare last under transport. Luftdæmpet affjedring og tykt gummigulv i trailerne letter besværligheden ved at rejse. Holdet stopper hver nat på lokale stalde, så de "blide giganter" kan hvile.

Holdet rejser også sammen med habilister, som udholder en lang uddannelsesproces, før de påtager sig den prestigefyldte rolle som en Budweiser Clydesdale Hitch Driver. At køre de kombinerede 12 tons vogn og heste kræver ekspertise og fysisk styrke. De 40 kilo linjer, der holdes af chaufføren plus spændingen i hestene, der trækker, skaber en vægt på mere end 75 kilo.

I øjeblikket bor Budweiser Clydesdales på bryggerierne Anheuser-Busch i St. Louis Merrimack, New Hampshire. og Fort. Collins, Colorado til offentlig visning. Besøgende kan også se Clydesdales på nært hold på Warm Springs Ranch, den førende Budweiser Clydesdales avlsvirksomhed i Boonville, Missouri, og på deres træningsanlæg på Grants Farm i St. Louis. Begge attraktioner er sæsonåbne.

Når de ikke optræder rundt omkring i landet, fortsætter Budweiser Clydesdales også med at markedsføre stalwarts for Anheuser-Busch. De optrådte første gang i Super Bowl i 1986, og har siden vist sig i mere end 25 Super Bowl -reklamer for virksomheden.

    Hver af Clydesdales ’håndlavede seler og kraver vejer cirka 130 pund.


Huse for de rige og berømte (i St. Louis, for et århundrede siden)

Se "starterhjem" for Busches, Lemps, Griesediecks og Mallinckrodts.

"Før de var berømte" fotografier er populære hos mennesker i dag, hvilket fik mig til at spekulere på, hvor mange af St. Louis 'mest berømte kaptajner for industrien boede Før de flyttede ind i deres ikoniske godser. Disse huse før berømtheden er for det meste væk, tabt til byfornyelse eller bare den naturlige udvidelse af centrum i begyndelsen af ​​det 20. århundrede. For eksempel er det svært at tro nu, men en klynge af den tysk-amerikanske forretningselite boede, hvor Clinton-Peabody Housing Project nu står. På samme måde blev nogle af de ældste, mest prestigefyldte familier i St. Louis, herunder Chouteaus, bygget på jorden, der nu blev brak af Poplar Street Bridge -tilgange. Gennem historiske fotografier kan vi sammensætte nogle af disse tabte husers historier.

Lad os starte med Busch -familien. Alle kender til palæet midt i Grant's Farm, en ikonisk struktur bygget af August A. Busch Sr. i 1910. Men Eberhard Anheuser og hans svigersøn Adolphus Busch boede i flere andre boliger omkring St. Louis. Som held ville fotografere William Swekosky Adolphus Buschs hus på Kennett Place 1838, og det står stadig, smukt restaureret i Lafayette Square -kvarteret. Compton og Dry's 1876 Billedlig St. Louis giver os også et pirrende glimt af, hvordan Buschs og Anheusers huse så ud omkring deres bryggeri, og efter at de var flyttet ud til udkanten.

Foto af W.S. Persons, 1914 med tilladelse fra Missouri History Museum

One Busch Place, med Eberhard Anheusers hus muligvis synligt til højre

Hilsen af ​​Missouri History Museum

Receptionen på One Busch Place, omkring 1900

Jeg har tidligere skrevet om det gigantiske palæ Adolphus Busch bygget på bryggeriets grund, men jeg fandt for nylig nye fotografier af interiøret og eksteriøret, der giver nyt indblik i huset. Jeg har stærkt mistanke om, at fløjen syd for det hulkende bygningsværk kan være hans svigerfars originale italienske hus på landet. Andre medlemmer af Busch -familien boede også tæt på. Carl Busch, en søn af Adolphus, boede i 1111 Arsenal, en kort gåtur til bryggeriet, i et solidt middelklassehus, der nu for længst er væk, erstattet af en tårnhøj bygning, der flankerer gaden.

Den engang Busch -bolig på 5577 Lindell

Foto af W.C. Parsons med tilladelse fra Missouri History Museum

Gussies stue på 5577 Lindell

Mens August “Gussie” A. Busch Jr. var berømt for at bo på Grant's Farm, åbne den for offentligheden og være vært for kæledyrselefanter, boede han andre steder, indtil hans far, August Busch Sr., bygherrens bygherre, døde i 1934. Efterhånden som bryggeriets succes blev svampet, voksede størrelsen på Busch -sønnernes "starthjem": Gussie flyttede ind i 5577 Lindell Boulevard lige nord for Forest Park. Huset står, og et vidunderligt fotografi af W.C. Personer viser os, hvor overdådigt det blev indrettet, da Gussie boede der.

Foto af William Swekosky med tilladelse fra Missouri History Museum

Anton Griesedieck -huset, 1805 Lami Street

Jeg har tidligere skrevet om de berømte huse oven på bluffene ved Meramec -floden, der ejes af medlemmer af Griesedieck- og Lemp -familierne. Men også de havde forfædre, der boede i langt mere ydmyge huse dybt inde i byen og for længst blev revet ned. For eksempel boede Anton Griesedieck, der var far til de fire sønner, der hver ville begynde forskellige grene af familiens bryggerivirksomhed, på Lami Street 1805, som desværre blev ødelagt for opførelsen af ​​Ozark Expressway, moderne Interstate 55. Placeringen var logisk, lige øst for det fremtidige Griesedieck Brothers Brewery og senere Falstaff -anlæg nr. 10, der blev drevet af hans sønner og barnebørn. Joseph Griesedieck boede også i huset, efter at hans far døde. I 1900 blev det omdannet til en investeringsejendom, og det blev senere solgt til en Byron Sharp. Det er et respektabelt hus, typisk for en kommende tysk amerikansk forretningsmand, der bor på Near South Side of St. Louis.

Griesedieck -bopælen på 19 Squires Lane i Huntleigh

Alvin Griesedieck, Falstaffs anden præsident, ville senere opdrage sin familie på den prestigefyldte adresse på 19 Squires Lane, i Huntleigh.

Hilsen af ​​Missouri History Museum

Adam Lemps villa på DeMenil Place

Den oprindelige grundlægger af Lemp -dynastiet, Adam, døde i 1862, så han så aldrig engang Lemp Mansion i South St. Louis. Huset blev bygget godt efter hans død af hans ven Jacob Feickert. Adam Lemp havde tilbragt store dele af sin karriere som brygger og boede i en lejlighed over sin salon på South Second Street, han ville senere bygge en landejendom på DeMenil Place, som vi kun kender gennem fragmentariske fotografier. Huset ejet af Feickert kom først i besiddelse af Adams søn, William Lemp Sr., meget senere.

Foto af W.C. Persons, 1915 med tilladelse fra Missouri History Museum

Edward Mallinckrodt -residensen, bygget i 1914

Foto af William Swekosky med tilladelse fra Missouri HIstory Museum

Boligen Mallinckrodt på 26 Vandeventer Place, bygget i 1881

Endelig er et kig på husene til Edward Mallinckrodt, der grundlagde det eponymiske kemikaliefirma, hvis efterfølgerselskab stadig opererer på North Riverfront, en undersøgelse af, hvordan arkitektur kan illustrere en persons stigning i samfundet. I 1881 byggede Mallinckrodt et stateligt hus på Vandeventer Place - dengang den mest eksklusive adresse i byen - som Midtown fyldt med palæer fra de velhavende og øvre middelklasse efter borgerkrigen. Men ved århundredeskiftet var Vandeventer Place og det omkringliggende kvarter blevet overfyldt og kommercielt, og palæer og kirker blev erstattet af skyskrabere, lejemål og teatre. Mallinckrodt havde lidt at bekymre sig om: I 1914 opgraderede han ganske pænt til et massivt nyt palæ på Westmoreland Place, lige nord for Forest Park, for at undgå røg fra byen (beboere blev forpligtet til at brænde kul af højere kvalitet på den private gade), og bosatte sig også i det største parti i området og strakte sig helt til Lindell. Men jeg håber, at han aldrig glemte sine "ydmyge" tidligere rødder på Vandeventer Place.


Vores bygning - Adolphus Busch Hall

En af de mest markante bygninger på Harvard University campus, Adolphus Busch Hall er bemærkelsesværdigt passende som hjemsted for Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies. Strukturen kan prale af en usædvanlig historie med rødder i en historisk anomali - oprettelsen i 1901 af et germansk museum på Harvard -campus for at fremhæve resultaterne af germansk kultur og samfund.

Opbygning af forståelse mellem to nationer

Skubbet til et sådant museum begyndte i slutningen af ​​1800 -tallet og afspejlede Tysklands betydning som uddannelsesmodel for amerikanske universiteter. Museets hovedforsvarer var en bemærkelsesværdig ung forsker fra Tyskland, Kuno Francke, der sluttede sig til Harvards tyske afdeling i 1884 og gjorde det til sin mission at hjælpe amerikanerne med at få en bedre forståelse af Tysklands kulturelle fortid. Fra 1897 begyndte Francke at føre kampagne for oprettelsen af ​​et germansk museum, der ville omfavne kulturerne i Tyskland, Holland, Skandinavien, Schweiz, Australien og endda England.

Francke tog kampagne for at oprette et germansk museum på Harvard for at hjælpe amerikanerne med bedre at forstå Tysklands kulturelle fortid.

Efter udtømmende arbejde af Francke, der vandt støtte fra daværende Harvard-præsident Charles Eliot og endda Kaiser Wilhelm II selv, blev museet etableret i Rogers Gymnasium, der blev genanvendt som udstillingsrum. Det nye museum blev åbnet for offentligheden i 1901 og formelt indviet to år senere. Rummet indeholdt oprindeligt en samling gipsreproduktioner af tyske statuer og kunst og fotografier, stort set doneret af kejseren. Francke sigtede imidlertid efter at få en mere ekspansiv facilitet, der kunne tjene som et "undervisningsmuseum" med artefakter og historisk materiale, der spænder over århundredernes tyske kultur.

Et Harvard -udvalg blev dannet for at rejse midler til et sådant foretagende, men det var stort set den generøse støtte fra St. Louis brygger Adolphus Busch, der gjorde det muligt for Harvard at sikre sig en placering og finansiere et design af den berømte Dresden -arkitekt tyske Bestelmeyer. Bygningen blev opført under ledelse af Herbert Langford Warren, grundlægger af Harvard School of Architecture.

Det, der skulle hedde Adolphus Busch Hall, blev opført i 1914-1916. De præfabrikerede kupler ved indgangen til Rotland Street -indgangen og det, der nu er Charles Kuhn Hall, krævede ingeniørteknikker, der aldrig havde været brugt før i USA. På det tidspunkt var det den dyreste bygning, der blev bygget af Harvard, baseret på prisen pr. Kubikfod.

Bygningens ydre er præget af skulpturelle og dekorative blomster og ætsede citater fra f.eks. Kant, Goethe og Schiller.

Bygningens ydre er præget af skulpturelle og dekorative blomster og ætsede citater fra f.eks. Kant, Goethe og Schiller. En lille gårdhave er prydet med en imponerende bronzeløve, en kopi af et monument fra 1166 opført af Henry the Lion ved Brunswick Cathedral i Brunswick, Tyskland.

Politik bringer en usikker fremtid

Begivenheder i Europa afsporede imidlertid næsten planer om at gøre denne imponerende struktur til et germansk museum. Første verdenskrig indledte en periode med hård anti-tysk følelse i USA, og det nationale forbud vendte offentligheden mod bryggerier som Busch. På trods af forhindringerne åbnede det germanske museum for offentligheden i april 1921, med Francke, der derefter trak sig tilbage fra Harvard -fakultetet som æreskurator.

Flere ændringer kom, der afspejler begivenheder i Europa: Museet var lukket fra 1942 til 1945 under Anden Verdenskrig, da den amerikanske hær besatte bygningen. Det genåbnede i 1946 og fire år senere blev det omdøbt til Busch-Reisinger Museum. Fra 1930, da Charles Kuhn blev udnævnt til kurator, skiftede museet fra en vægt på fremvisning af reproduktioner til at etablere en usædvanlig fin og omfattende samling af original kunst, primært tyske ekspressionistiske malerier fra det 20. århundrede. I 1958 blev en D.A. Flentrop -orgel blev installeret, og betragtninger og koncerter blev føjet til museets programmer.

Fokus skifter til Europa med Center 's bevægelse

I 1989 besluttede Harvard at flytte Busch-Reisinger-museet og dets nu fremragende samling af tysk og centraleuropæisk kunst til en ny bygning, der skulle opføres bag Fogg-museet. I 1991 åbnede Busch-Reisinger-museet i Werner Otto Hall, hvor det viste betydelige værker af østrigsk sessionskunst, tysk ekspressionisme, 1920'ernes abstraktion og materialer relateret til Bauhaus samt efterkrigstiden og samtidskunst fra tysktalende Europa. Busch Hall fortsatte med at huse den grundlæggende samling af gipsafstøbninger af middelalderlig kunst.

I dag giver Busch Hall plads til CES-kontorer, klasser og programmer, mens en del af bygningen er bevaret som et museum og administreres af Harvard Art Museums, som også fører tilsyn med Busch-Reisinger Museum. Flere CES -professorer opretholder også kontorer i denne del af bygningen.

I sommeren 1989 flyttede CES ind i en nyrenoveret Busch Hall, konstruktionen blev understøttet af Jean og Charles de Gunzburgs gavmildhed, som også hjalp med at etablere en begavelse, der ville støtte vedligeholdelse af denne historiske bygning. Bygningen blev opkaldt efter deres mor baronesse Aileen (Minda) de Gunzburg.

Besøgende kan stadig få en fornemmelse af Franckes originale vision med en spadseretur gennem Charles Kuhn -hallen, som er bevaret som et udstillingsvindue for gipsafstøbninger og kopier, der dannede kernen i den originale samling. Dette inkluderer en dramatisk kopi af en kirkeport fra 1200 -tallet i Sachsen, en kopi af en indviklet udskåret 1200 -talsportal fra en Freiberg -kirke og originale sandstensstatuer fra 1700 -tallet, der repræsenterer de fire årstider. En række provokerende freskomalerier af Lewis Rubenstein, bestilt i 1935-36, skildrer den nordiske legende om "Gudernes skumring", men refererer til samtids tysk historie med en gasmaske blandt de symbolske sværd og rustninger. Der tilbydes regelmæssigt gratis orgelrecitater om eftermiddagen.

Bygningen fortsætter med at glæde campus med sin arkitektoniske charme, herunder de skulpturerede ansigter omkring dens ydre og storløven i gårdhaven.


Den mærkelige og komplicerede historie om St. Louis 'tyske bryggerimperier

Det var ikke altid krig og revolution, der bragte tyske immigranter til amerikanske kyster.

Der er gjort meget op i St. Louis historiebøger om betydningen af ​​revolutionerne i 1848 i Tyskland, som førte til, at tusindvis af flygtninges immigration flygtede fra den undertrykkelse, der fulgte i hele Europa. Selvom der bestemt er en vis sandhed i den historiske række af begivenheder, der fremskynder væksten i det tysk-amerikanske samfund i St. Louis, er virkeligheden meget mere kompliceret. Faktisk ankom de tre mest fremtrædende tysk-amerikanske bryggerifamilier i St. Louis, Busches, Lemps og Griesediecks, til forskellige datoer uden nogen direkte indflydelse på begivenhederne i 1848.

De store historiske begivenheder i de 100 år før revolutionerne i 1848 ligger mange steder. I Amerika havde revolutionskrigen gjort det muligt at etablere et demokrati i Amerika, idet den franske revolution kun fremkaldte få år senere. Europas absolutte monarker forsøgte deres bedste, på trods af en generel modvilje mod den nyligt afsatte kong Louis XVI, for at stoppe det franske folks forsøg på at etablere demokrati i Europa. Europas konger og kejsere mislykkedes elendigt, men tumulten under den franske revolution skabte et nyt problem: Napoleon.

De uorganiserede og fragmenterede fyrstedømmer, der en dag ville danne den moderne delstat Tyskland, forblev en del af det dødbringende Hellige Romerske Rige og blev 1.000 år gamle, da Napoleon steg til magten. Det østrigske Habsburg-dominerede imperium blev besejret gentagne gange i kamp, ​​hvilket førte til afskaffelsen af ​​imperiet i 1806. Napoleon skabte Rhinforbundet ud af de tidligere tyske territorier uden for Kongeriget Preussen og østrigske Habsburg-besiddelser. Men Forbundet var intet andet end en satellitstat i det franske imperium, og tusinder af tyskere blev inddraget i invasionen af ​​Rusland. Faktisk ville forældrene til Lemp- og Busch -bryggerifamilierne i St. Louis helt sikkert have husket franske hære, der marcherede gennem deres hjembyer i Hesse. Griesediecks kom fra det nærliggende tyske territorium Westphalia, som også ville bære byrden af ​​franske invasioner.

Med det sidste nederlag af Napoleon af britiske og preussiske styrker ved Waterloo i 1815 blev Europa tilbage til at rydde op i rodet. Et nyligt dominerende Preussen, der drev fart i deres militære sejre mod Napoleon, begyndte sultent at forbruge de tidligere uafhængige, men små fyrstedømmer i Nordtyskland. For familier, der forsker i deres forfædre, kan Preussens hurtige ekspansion efter Napoleonskrigene være forvirrende, da fødesteder kan opføres som "Tyskland", "Preussen" eller en anden lille stat, der forbruges af førstnævnte. Preussen var ikke interesseret i at reformere sin regering, og revolutionerne i Preussen begyndte i Berlin i 1848. Mødet i Frankfurt forsøgte det nyligt dannede parlament at oprette et parlamentarisk monarki.

Det mislykkedes, og faktisk er tusinder af tyskere, der flygtede til St. Men disse revolutioner forklarer ikke Adam Lemps ankomst til Amerika i 1836 eller 1838, længe før 1848. Hans valg af St. Louis og Missouri ligger sandsynligvis i udgivelsen af ​​Gottfried Dudens rejsebog fra 1829, Rapport om en rejse til Nordamerikas vestlige stater og et flerårigt ophold i årene 1824 til 1827. Denne bog anbefaler glødende Missouri River Valley som perfekt til tysk bosættelse, tilsyneladende på grund af dens lighed med Rhinen River Valley, der støder op til Hessen, hvorfra Lemp kom. I de kommende uger vil mere om Adam Lemps liv blive undersøgt her kl St. Louis Magazine. Mens Lemp, som det ses, havde sine egne personlige problemer, er Rudens bog en meget stærk kandidat til at opmuntre ham til at komme til Gateway City.

På samme måde forlod Adolphus Busch Kastel, Hesse i 1857, en by ikke frygtelig langt fra Lemps eller Griesediecks hjembyer. Der er ingen tegn på, at Busch var på flugt fra nogen undertrykkelse i Hessen, som stadig stædigt fastholdt sin uafhængighed, selvom store dele af det centrale Tyskland blev absorberet af Preussen. Faktisk ser Busch -familien i årtierne før og efter Preussens oprettelse af det tyske imperium ud til at have bevaret stærke bånd til den kejserlige familie, Hohenzollerns. Adolphus Busch købte et maleri af Otto von Bismarck, Preussens kansler og derefter det tyske kejserrige. Hans familie slog også til med den kejserlige familie, så meget, at Busches under udbruddet af første verdenskrig blev uretfærdigt anklaget for at være tyske sympatisører. Havde Busches tilgivet preusserne for tidligere undertrykkelse? Det er bestemt muligt, men det virker usandsynligt.

På samme måde stammer immigrationen fra den romersk -katolske Griesedieck -familie ikke fra revolutionerne i 1848. Ankomsten til St. Louis i årene lige efter den amerikanske borgerkrig steg familien hurtigt frem som bryggerier, ligesom deres forfædre havde i Tyskland. At dømme efter husejerskabet af Griesediecks illustreret i Compton og Dry's 1875 Billedlig St. Louis, de blev ganske velstående på mindre end et årti. Der er en stærk mulighed for, at de første omrøring af de luthersk-dominerede Preussen Kulturkampf af 1871 kan have opfordret Griesediecks til at forlade Westfalen, som var blevet annekteret af Preussen efter Napoleons nederlag. Også det lutherske Preussen havde besejret det romersk -katolske Østrig i 1865, så måske var det religiøse klima blevet mørkere i kølvandet på den konflikt.

Derfor viser bare familiehistorierne om Lemps, Busches og Griesediecks, at tysk immigration til St. Louis ikke bør males med en bred pensel. Revolutionen i 1848 er blot en af ​​mange mulige forklaringer. Alle familierne var bestemt blevet trætte af den konstante, århundredelange krigsførelse mellem Frankrig og den preussiske og østrigsk dominerede øst. Hessen og Westfalen sad midt imellem de to sider og var konstant blevet invaderet, decimeret og annekteret utallige gange i bare de to århundreder før tysk forening i 1871. Løftet om et nyt land, tusinder af miles bredt og tusinder af miles fra Europas uro var bestemt en mulighed, de ikke kunne ignorere.


DE TIDLIGE ÅR

Adolphus Busch blev født i Tyskland den 10. juli 1839 som den yngste af 21 børn fra en velhavende familie med en rig historie inden for fremstilling af alkoholholdige drikkevarer. Hans far tjente en formue på at handle med vine og andre forsyninger til bryggerier i Europa, men Adolphus havde øjnene rettet mod Amerika. Han forlod hjemmet på atten og bosatte sig i St. Louis og brugte sin families rigdom til at etablere et bryggeriforsyningsfirma. Han udvidede familiens imperium yderligere, da han i 1866 var med til at stifte et firma sammen med sin svigerfar, Eberhard Anheuser. Dette firma blev kendt som Anheuser-Busch, Incorporated.


Adolphus Busch - Historie

Adolphus Busch: Industriens kaptajn.

Adolphus Busch-der sammen med sin svigerfar, Eberhard Anheuser, grundlagde det store bryggerimperi, der bærer begge deres navne-blev anset for at have været en af ​​de mest flamboyante industrimænd i det nittende århundrede. Det blev sagt, at Adolphus i stedet for det traditionelle telefonkort ofte præsenterede forretningsforbindelser for en fancy lommekniv i messing indeholdende et kighul med Adolphus portræt indeni.

En bryggerihistoriker malede følgende billede af Adolphus Buschs appetit på ekstravagance:

"Indbegrebet af den dynastiske brygger var St. Louis's Adolphus Busch, en mand med stor livsglæde, fremtoningsvaner, der var ukendte for det puritanske amerikanske samfund, og en kongelig indstilling til verden. Han havde ikke kun et overdådigt hjem i nærheden af ​​planten kaldet Nr. 1 Busch Place, men også en stor landejendom, 'Grant's Farm' to hjem i Pasadena - 'Ivy Wall' for ham selv og hans kone, Lilly og 'The Blossoms', for børn og besøgende en ejendom og hop gård i Cooperstown, New York, fødested for baseball to villaer i Langenschwalbach, Tyskland (en til ham selv og Lilly, en til børnene og besøgende) og en privat jernbanevogn kaldet 'Adolphus'. I en bog om familien bemærkede barnebarnet Alice Busch Tilton, at da hendes far, Adolphus, Jr., blev født, "blev der affyret en salut med kanoner fra bryggeriet. Der var stor glæde, og det burde der vel have været. Kronen Prins blev født! ' På alle godserne var der fabelagtig grund, og Busch havde lyst til at indrette sine haver og skoven med udskæringer af karaktererne i Grimms eventyr. ”Vores haver i Californien, huskede fru Tilton,” var virkelig som en scene fra Midsommernatsdrøm. Vi beskæftigede 40 til 50 gartnere. '"

Da Adolphus og Lilly Busch fejrede deres gyldne bryllupsdag i 1911, konkurrerede gallaproblemet med kongelige. En avisreporter skrev:

"Busches of St. Louis havde et behageligt gyldent bryllup i Californien forleden. Ølens måder har været behagelige måder for dem. Manden kronede konen med et $ 200.000 diadem. USA's præsident sendte et guldstykke på $ 20 ... oberst Roosevelt sendte en kærlig kop af massivt guld og kejser af Tyskland sendte en lignende gave. Præsidenter, tidligere præsidenter og kejsere hyldede manden, der lavede øl og fik den til at betale sig. Det kan betale sig at lykkes og blive rig. I mellemtiden bidrog hver mand, der drak et glas Busch -øl, med sin mide til lykken i Californien. "

Adolphus Busch died in 1913 after nearly a half-century at the head of the brewing enterprise which he built. Anheuser-Busch paid homage to its founding father by writing, "Adolphus Busch's genius as a brewer and his flair for advertising combined to lift the company to great heights."


Adolphus Busch - History

Saint Louis Directory Listings

1890 No listing for Busch
1890 Heitz Christian, sec Lindell Glass Co. 2814 N. 9th, r. 1127 Montgomery
1890 Heitz, Frederick, glass, Dorcas, nw. cor. Main, r. 176 Dorcas
1891 No listing for Busch
1892 BUSCH ADOLPHUS GLASS CO. J Schmedtje, Mngr., 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1893 BUSCH ADOLPHUS GLASS MNFG. CO. J Schmedtje, Mngr., 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1894 BUSCH ADOLPHUS GLASS MNFG. CO. J Schmedtje, Mngr., 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1895 BUSCH ADOLPHUS GLASS MNFG. CO. J Schmedtje, Sec. and Mngr., 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1895 Heitz Frederick, glass Dorcas, nw, cor Main, r, 176 Dorcas
1896 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg. Co. 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1896 Heitz Frederick, glass Dorcas, nw, cor Main, r, 176 Dorcas
1897 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg. Co. 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1897 Heitz Frederick, glass. Dorcas, nw, cor Main, r, 176 Dorcas
1898 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg. Co. 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1898 Heitz Frederick W. foreman. r 176 Dorcas
1899 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg. Co. 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1900 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg. Co. 3d, sw. cor. Barton
1901 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg. Co. Main. nw. eor. Dorcas
1902 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg. Co. Main. nw. cor. Dorcas
1903 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co Main nw cor Dorcas
1904 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co Main nw cor Dorcas
1905 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co 101 Dorcas
1906 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co 101 Dorcas
1907 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co 101 Dorcas
1908 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co 101 Dorcas
1909 Directory not available
1910 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co 101 Dorcas

1915 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co 101 Dorcas

1920 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co Aug A Busch pres 101 Dorcas

1923 Busch Adolphus Glass Mnfg Co Aug A Busch pres 103 Dorcas
_______________________________________________________________________________________

To give a complete list of the new industries started since the passage of the McKinley bill would be impossible, and would occupy more space than The Arena could spare. I give, therefore, a partial list compiled from the Boston Commercial Bulletin, and covering only the first three months after the passage of the law, that is, from Oct. 1, 1890. These are the months most unfavorable to the bill, but the statistics show what the growth of new and old industries has been under the tariff of 1890 in three months, and indicate what the future increase is likely to be.

Chattanooga Pottery Co. Pottery Mills at Millville, Tenn.
Glass factory to manufacture glass jars and bottles at Middletown, Indiana.
Window glass factory at Baltimore, Md.
Glass manufactory at Fostoria, Ohio. (125 persons operate 12 pots.)
Parmenter Mfg. Co. at East Brookfield, Mass. (Capital, $250,000.)
Glass manufactory at Grand Rapids, Mich.
American Union Bottle Co. Glass works at Woodbury, N. J.
A. Busch Glass Works at St. Louis, Mo.
Large glass plant at Denver, Col., by Chicago parties. (To employ between 300 and 400 men.) Diamond Plate Glass
Co., at Kokomo, Indiana. (Capacity, 5,500 ft. per day.)
New green glass factory at Alton, Ills. (To employ 425 men.)
Union Glass Co. at Malaga, N. J. (Capital, 1100,000.)
Window Glass Co. of Pittsburgh, Pa. (Capital, $100,000.)
Window glass factory at Millville, N. J.
Glass manufactory at North Baltimore, Md. (Optical goods.)

Flower, B. O. Arenaen (Boston, The Arena Publishing Co., 1891)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

ST. Louis, Jan. 27.--William Conway, engineer of the Busch Glass works, took a lighted lamp into the oil room Sunday evening when an explosion occurred. Blazing oil spread over the room and Conway was burned to death. The fire was stubborn and damaged the place $2,000.

Marietta Daily Leader (Marietta, Ohio) February 1, 1896
_______________________________________________________________________________________

THE SECRETARY OF STATE AT SPRINGFIELD yesterday licensed the incorporation of the following companies:
.
The Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing company of St. Louis, Mo., with a capital of $200,000 in Illinois, $30,000.
.

The Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois) September 14, 1898
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Name of Corporation. | In what state incorporated | Location of principal office in Illinois | License to do
business in Illinois issued. | Fees paid.

Adolphus Busch Glass Mfg. Co.| Missouri. |Belleville. | 30,000.00| Sept. 12, 1898| 78.00

Biennial Report of the Secretary of State of the State of Illinois for the Fiscal Years, Beginning October 1, 1896, and Ending September 30, 1898.
_______________________________________________________________________________________

BUSCH GLASS WORKS FIRE.
__________________

Damages Estimated at $75,000---
New Plant Purchased.

The destruction by fire of the St. Louis plant of the Adolphus Busch Glass Works at Third and Barton streets early yesterday morning entailed a loss of $75,000, which is covered by insurance. The plant was completely gutted. It was a story and a half building with a frame interior, which burned like tinder.
Six Hundred expert glass blowers were employed in the works, which had a daily capacity of 500 gross of beer, soda and mineral water bottles, and the output for the year was sold in advance. In order that the men remain but a short period in idleness, Adolphus Busch the president of the company, yesterday bought the old Heitz Glass Works, located at the foot of Dorcas street, which will be started in within a fortnight.
The cause of the fire is believed to have been defective electric wires. Mr. Busch stated last night that he intended to rebuild at once an absolutely fireproof structure of iron, brick and cement on the site of the ruins. The other branches of the Busch glass works are located at Belleville and Streator in Illinois.
Thousands of spectators visited the scene of the fire yesterday afternoon, as it was the first big fire South St. Louis has seen for some time. captain Schroeder of the Second District had the ruins well roped in and there was
a special detail of police on duty.
The majority of employees of the company were participating in the brewery ball which was being given at Concordia Hall. Thirteenth and Arsenal streets, while the fire was in progress,

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) April 2, 1900
_______________________________________________________________________________________

200,000 fire brick, 100 cars building rock Third and Barton Busch glass works lot of iron rails. A. Alpirin, iron and metal dealer, 801 S. Broadway both phones.

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) January 23, 1902
_______________________________________________________________________________________

BOYS WANTED--Fifty boys at A. Busch Glass Manufacturing Company, Main and Dorcas sts.

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) May 4, 1902
_______________________________________________________________________________________

-- The Busch Glass Works resumed operations yesterday after a shutdown of two months during the heated term.
Four hundred men are at work.

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) September 4, 1902
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Wanted, 100 Boys.
Call at Adolphus Busch Glass co. Main and Dorcas sts.

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) April 19, 1903
_______________________________________________________________________________________

One of the factories of the Anheuser-Busch Glass Co. at Belleville. Ill., has been closed down and it is said that work will not be resumed until the fall. Overproduction is given as the reason for the suspension.

Glass and Pottery World (Chicago, Illinois) May 1903
_______________________________________________________________________________________

GLASS FACTORIES LABORERS STRIKE.
_________

Several Hundred Men and Boys Out,
and Work at a Standstill.

As a result of the strike of the laborers at the Busch and Port Works will remain closed indefinitely. The glass blowers who expected to start work there were informed yesterday morning that word had been received from
Adolphus Busch's representatives that they had better go elsewhere if they wanted to work, as the glass works would not be opened for some time.
This news caused much excitement in West Belleville. Several hundred men and boys are employed in this industry, and much of the welfare of the West End depends on the operation of the plant. Prominent business men of Belleville will endeavor to bring about this result.
Messrs. Geiger and Mathias of the State Board of Arbitration yesterday began working to the same end. the men
have been getting $1,58 a day and want $1.65.

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) September 22, 1903
_______________________________________________________________________________________

GLASS WORKERS STRIKE SETTLED.
____________

State Board of Arbitration Declines to Make Public the Terms.

Members of the State Board of Arbitration yesterday settled the strike of the laborers at the Port Glass Works. The fires were laid last evening.
The basis of the settlement was not made public. The Board of Arbitration is now engaged in attempting to settle the differences between the laborers and the employers at the Busch Glass Works.

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) September 23, 1903
_______________________________________________________________________________________

FIRES REKINDLED IN FURNACES.
____________

Busch Glass Works to Resume Oper-
ations in Five or Six Days.

Fires were started in the Busch Glass Works' furnaces yesterday afternoon. Hope of the glass works resuming operations ran high among the residents of the West End, Belleville, as a result. It will take five or six days for the furnaces to get hot enough for work. It is believed that a call will be sent to the glass blowers who have left town to return to work. The glass works did not open because of trouble with the laborers employed there. This trouble was all settled Monday evening.

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) November 19, 1903
_______________________________________________________________________________________

An agreement has been reached between the officials of the Busch Glass Company at Belleville, 111., and its
workers by means of which operations have been resumed. The factory was idle since last June owing to inability
to come to terms. The product of the plant is bottles.

Glass and Pottery World (Chicago, Illinois) December 1903
_______________________________________________________________________________________

VIOLATED CHILD LABOR LAW.
___________________

Fines of $5 Accessed Against Thirty-
Six Companies.

Corporations and firms on the east Side yesterday pleaded guilty to thirty-six charges of alleged violations of the child-labor law, and thirty-six being part of the fifty-nine cases brought by Deputy Factory Inspector Johnson before Justice of the Peace Driscoll of East St. Louis on Friday.
The please of guilty were entered by the companies as follows: National Livestock Exchange, one case. O'Bear
Nestor Glass Works, fifteen cases, all of East St. Louis, and the Busch Glass Works of Belleville, four cases. A fine of $5 each was imposed in each case. The remainder of the cases are set for hearing on November 29.

St. Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) November 20, 1904
_______________________________________________________________________________________

A large glass industry has developed about St. Louis, due to the presence of an extensive and very pure deposit of white sand or silica, about twenty-five miles west and south of the city. This sand is so free from iron contamination that it is largely shipped to the glass works in the Indiana gas belt.

Crystal Plate Glass Works of the Pittsburg Plate Glass Co., at Crystal City, Mo., 30 miles south of St. Louis, reached by the Iron Mountain R. R., the Memphis branch of the Frisco and by steamboat.

The plant covers twenty-six acres and contains four Siemens's regenerative glass melting furnaces with necessary gas producers, ninety-four annealing kilns, twenty-five disc grinding machines, forty-two polishing machines, boilers and Corliss condensing engines aggregating 3000 h. p., pumping plant of 5,000,000 gallons capacity per twenty-four hours and three locomotives. Six and a half miles of railroad in and around factory.

St. Louis Plate Glass Co. Works at Valley Park, Mo., 19 miles west, of St. Louis, via Mo. Pac. or Frisco R. R. New and extensive works, containing four 20-pot furnaces ware annealed in continuous Lehrs kilns.

Illinois Glass Co. Works at Alton, Ill., 22 miles north of St. Louis via C. and A. R. R. This is the largest bottle factory in the United States and produces all kinds of flint and colored bottles eight continuous tank furnaces, three Gill pot furnaces, five day tanks.

Mississippi Glass Co. Foot of Angelica St. take Broadway car north to 4100 N. Broadway, then walk two blocks east. Make skylight and wire glass, cathedral glass, rough plate have two continuous regenerative tank furnaces capacity 50 tons in 24 hours.

(a) Main and Dorcas Sts. Manufacturers of green bottle glass. One 20-ring regenerative tank furnace, capacity 50 tons in 24 hours, the largest in the world.

(b) Belleville, Ill., 15 miles from St. Louis. Green bottle factory of the Anheuser-Busch brewery. Three continuous tank furnaces, 32 rings capacity 82 tons in 24 hours, or the equivalent of 164,000 bottles.

Obear-Nestor Glass Co., Broadway, East St. Louis take car on Eads Bridge. Manufacturers of flint bottle glass one 20-ring continuous tank, capacity 20 tons in 24 hours one 16 and one 14-pot furnace.

Continental Glass Mfg. Co., Third and Barton Sts. take Broadway car to Barton St., walk one block east. One 9-ring continuous tank operating on press ware.

Port Glass Works, Belleville, Ill. One 7-ring continuous tank furnace, operating on machine made fruit jars capacity 27 tons or 54,000 jars in 24 hours.

World's Fair Souvenir of the Engineers' Club of Saint Louis (1904)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

BUSCH, Adolphus, manufacturer, was born near Mainz, Germany, in 1842. He received superior educational advantages, completing a course of study at a noted collegiate institution of Belgium. After being connected with a large mercantile house in Cologne for a time, he decided to come to the United States, and arrived in St. Louis, Mo., in 1857, finding employment there with a wholesale commission house. At the outbreak of the civil war he enlisted in the Federal army and served fourteen months. Upon attaining his majority he received from his father's estate means sufficient to establish in St. Louis a brewer's supply business of considerable importance, which he continued until 1800, when he formed a partnership with Eberhard Anheuser, who was owner of the Bavarian Brewery, which had a small but well-established trade. In 1873 Mr. Busch discovered a process of bottling beers to withstand the temperature of all climates, which has enabled him to extend his trade to every portion of the globe. In the same year the firm of E. Anheuser & Co. was incorporated, which was changed upon Mr. Anheuser's death, in 1880, to the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association, with Mr. Busch as president. Under Mr. Busch's management the business has increased phenomenally, and in 1901 the sales passed the million barrel mark, tar exceeding those of any other brewery in the world. Beside his large interest in the Anheuser-Busch Association, he is president of the South Side bank and the Manufacturer's Railroad Co. He founded the Adolphus Busch Glass Co. in St. Louis, with branches at LaSalle, Belleville and Streator, 111., and the largest bottle manufacturing firm in the world, besides owning u controlling interest in five brewing plants in Texas and numerous ice manufacturing plants in different parts of the United States. He is also heavily interested in steam and street railways and various other important enterprises. The magnitude of these interests is considerable, yet so thoroughly systematized arc his affairs that he handles them with ease. He is a director of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Co. and chairman of its committee on foreign relations. Mr. Busch is a man of great benevolence and generosity. He has spent much time in travel abroad and throughout the United States. He was married, in 1861, to Lilly, daughter of Eberhard Anheuser.

The National Cyclopaepedia of American Biography Volume XII (New York, James T. White & Company, 1904)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

I was also called to Belleville a number of times in the early part of the season to try and settle a difference between the Busch Glass Company and the Glass House Employees' Union, which was finally settled, after keeping our men walking the streets for about four months after the first of September. The Busch Glass Company started but one of their three factories in the middle of the season, employing all of their apprentices, including those from their other factories which they had idle but, upon request of your executive official, they willingly took off the number employed in the factories which were standing idle, and put journeymen in their places, showing conclusively that branch's neglect even to ask the management to live up to the law at times.

In the month of May I was asked by said company to go to Belleville and investigate the reason of the men not working steady. I did so. I found a great many places standing idle in one factory, for the reason of too much drink. I called a special meeting of the branch also their attention to the condition, and gave them what advice I was capable of giving. The conclusion I arrived at was that the company started their factory so late in the season that men who cared to work would not leave steady places to go to a company so late in the season. Hence, they were obliged to take what men they could get to fill their places at that time.

Proceedings of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and Canada Twenty-Eight Annual Session (Camden, C. S. Magrath, 1904)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

BUSCH GLASS PLANT
DESTROYED BY FIRE
_________

Flames Envelop Building Soon
After Explosion, Supposedly of
Gas--Great Warehouses Were
Threatened.
___

The plant of the Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company, at Main and Dorcas street, was destroyed by fire
last night. The fire was immediately preceded by an explosion in the east end of the building, supposed to have been caused by escaping gas.
Martin E. Schuster, night watchman at the plant, was at the other end of the building at 8:30 o'clock when the explosion occurred. He says that almost simultaneously with the the report, flames spread about the glass-melting furnaces and quickly enveloped the building.
Schuster turned in the first alarm and later a general alarm was rung by the patrolman on the beat. When the engines arrived the entire building was afire, and flames were bursting out of the windows on all sides. For a time the great bottle warehouse opposite the glass plant on Dorcas street containing thousands of dollars worth of goods, were in danger from the flames and sparks.
Great difficulty was experiences by the Fire Department in running its lines of hose to the burning building. It is surrounded on two sides by piles of lumber and fences, and on the east side by the Iron Mountain tracks. Even after the hose was connected, the streams were small, owing to the distance from which the water had to be pumped.
About an hour after the fire started, the entire east wall of the building collapsed and fell out across the railroad tracks. Chief Swingley and several fireman, who were working on that side of the building, barely escaped the falling bricks and mortar.
The glass plant employed 500 operatives, including 200 boys. Owing to Washington's Birthday, the plant had closed and only the watchman and fireman were about the building. The latter had gone to supper when the explosion had occurred. Eight box cars filled with raw materials for manufacturing bottles, and coal, which were on the tracks inside the building, were burned. None of the freight cars standing on the Iron Mountain tracks, however, were damaged. It is estimated that $90,000 will cover the loss to the building and its contents. the structure was one-storey high, of brick, and was built five years ago.
The glass company has an enormous supply of bottles already manufactured and in storage, and in addition, the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association has a large supply of bottles on hand, so that the brewery will not be handicapped in this respect until the plant can be rebuilt.

The Saint Louis Republic (St. Louis, Missouri) February 23, 1905
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Fire Destroys Busch Glass Works,

St. Louis, Feb. 23.--The Adolphus Busch glass works building was destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of $75,000.
the fire is believed to have started by electric wires. Two large glass furnaces were saved by averting streams
of water from falling upon them. The plant manufactured the glass bottles used by the Anheuser-Busch Brewing
company. It is stated that the loss of the plant throws 500 employees out of work.

The Norfolk Weekly News Journal (Norfolk, Nebraska) February 24, 1905
_______________________________________________________________________________________

NAME. | Brach of Industry | Girls under 16 years| Boys under 16 years. | Males over 16 Years | Børn under 16 år
years || Total Number of Employees.
Busch Glass Mfg. C., Adolphus | Glass factory. |. | 83|. | 507| 83|| 590

Eleventh And Twelfth Annual Reports of the Factory Inspectors of Illinois Year Ending December 15, 1903 Year Ending December 15, 1904 (Springfield, Illinois State Journal Co., 1906)
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Strike Of Glass Workers, Belleville.

A strike of glass workers at Belleville received the attention of the board in September, l903. On the twentieth Chairman Geiger went to Belleville in response to a letter received from Mayor Kern. It was found that the strike was at the works of the Port Glass Company and the Busch Glass Manufacturing Company, and that about l,000 men were involved, the weekly pay roll aggregating $l5,000. On the following day Chairman Geiger was joined by Mr. Mathis. They met a committee of the glass blowers, consisting of H. F. Burns, Logan Mellon and E. N. Schreiber. It was found that both companies had signed contracts with the glass blowers, and that the trouble was with the glass house men, packers and laborers. At l:30 p. m. of the same day, Messrs. Geiger and Mathis had a conference with Mr. J. W. Port, of the Port Glass Company, at the Belleville House. Mr. Port agreed to meet a committee from Local Union No. 3 at any time, with a view to reaching a settlement.

A conference between the members of the board and John Tolsch, president of Local Union No. 3, and John Bullock of the committee, followed, and arrangements were made for a conference with John W. Port, of the Port Glass Company, to be held at the Belleville House at 9:30 the following morning. It was the understanding that the committee of the union should come to the conference with full power to agree upon terms of settlement.

The members of the board met John Fetterline, superintendent, and William Lepper, foreman, of the Busch Glass Manufacturing Company, at the company's offices, and went over the case. Mr. Fetterline informed the board that the company desired to close its plant and had so informed the glass blowers that forenoon. The reason for this action was that the wage scale demanded by the common laborers and packers was such that the company could not see its way clear to resume operation. After some discussion, Mr. Fetterline, at the request of the board, consented to lay the question of meeting the men in joint conference, before the general management of the Busch Glass Manufacturing Company, and to meet Messrs. Geiger and Mathis at the Southern Hotel in St. Louis on the evening of the 23d. A conference was held at the Belleville House at l0:30 a. m., on Sept. 22, at which there were present besides the members of the board, Mr. J. W. Port, of the Port Glass Company James Borders, president of the Trades and Labor Assembly John Tolsch, chairman, John Bullock, Herman Schaeffer, Fred Kissel and Ben Lovelace, representing Local Union No. 3 of the International Association of Glass House Employees. The conference lasted, with a brief intermission for lunch, until 3:45 p. m , when the following agreement was duly signed:

At a conference held at the Belleville House, Belleville, Ill., Sept. 23, 1903, 1 between the representatives of the International Association of Glass House Employees, No. 3, and the Port Glass Works, represented by John W. Port, of Belleville, Ill., held at the suggestion of Chauncey B. Geiger and W. A. Mathis, members of the State Board of Arbitration, it was agreed, after due deliberation and consideration, to recommend to the two parties to the controversy now existing between the said International Association of the Glass House Employees and the Port Glass Works, that a compromise of the said difficulty be effected by making the following suggestions for compromise:

1. That the company hire men who belong to the International Association of Glass House Employees Local Union No. 3, or men who are acceptable thereto.
2. Scale of wages: Laborers, $1.65 per day of nine hours packers, $1.90 per day of nine hours mixers, $1.90 per
shift, same as heretofore fillers-in, $1.70 per day of eight hours ash wheelers, $1.65 per day of nine hours
gas makers, $1.70 per day of eight hours layer packers, $1.65 per day of nine hours washers, 90 cents per day
of nine hours cappers and fillers, 75 cents per day of nine hours.
3. In case of any difference of opinion about the meaning of the contract or any other matter during the past, it
is understood and agreed that there shall be no stoppage of work in any department of the works. All such matters
of difference that cannot be settled by the superintendent and employees must be left to arbitration, the employees
to select one man, the company one man, and the two so selected to appoint a third man, their decision to be
binding upon both parties.
4. The men working under this agreement to do all in their power to further the interests of the company in
accordance with the scale.
5. The employees must live up to the rules of the company if in reason and must be prompt in reporting for work.
6. The company to pay time and one-third for all over time including such work not customary Sunday work.
7. Apprentice packers to serve ninety days before receiving full pay, one apprentice to pack house. Lærling
packers to receive $1.65 per day of nine hours, until time is served. Warehouse men preferred.
8. When anyone is in the employment of the Port Glass Works, not a member of I. A. of C. H. E., who has not the money to pay his fees, the Port Glass1 Works will accept orders for the same and pay the amount to an authorized
agent of the organization, providing the party has the money coming to him or her.

This contract in force from date until Sept. 1, 1904.

John Tolsch,
John Bullock,
Herman Schaeffer,
Fred Kissel,
Ben Lovelace,
International Association of Glass House Employees, No. 3.
Port Glass Works,
(Per J. W. Port.)
Chaunoey B. Geiger, Chairman.

Members of State Board of Arbitration.

Pursuant to the arrangement already mentioned, Messrs. Greiger and Mathis held a conference at the Southern Hotel at 8:30 p. m., Sept. 23 with Mr. Fetterline, superintendent of the Busch Glass Works of Belleville, and the
committee of the union consisting of John Tolsch, John Bullock, Herman Schaeffer, Fred Kissel and Ben Lovelace.
Mr. Fetterline stated that the plant would not open in Belleville at that time on account of the overstock of bottles in storage and that the company would not grant the demands of the Local Union No. 3.

Ninth Annual Report of the State Board of Arbitration of Illinois December 31, 1904 (Springfield, Illinois State Journal Co., 1905)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

St. Louis, Feb. 23--The Adolphus Busch glass manufacturing works, at main and Dorcas streets, were completely
destroyed by fire last night, which started while the night shift of some 500 men and boys was preparing to work
after their lunch hour, about 8:40 o'clock.
The loss is estimated at $75,000, and two men were slightly hurt.

The Daily Review (Decatur, Illinois) February 23, 1905
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MANY MILLIONS
OF BOTTLES
_____

BIG NEW GLASS COMPANY OWNS
FACTORIES IN SIX DIFFER-
ENT TOWNS.

Exclusive Selling Agent for New New-
ark Machine Bottle co.--Complete
List of Officers.
____

The annual capacity of the new ten million dollar American Bottle company recently formed in this city is 300,000,000 bottles.

The new company has purchased the factories and good will of the following named concerns: Ohio Bottle company with plants at Newark, Massillon and Wooster, Ohio, The Streator, Ill., Bottle plant, The A. Busch Glass factories at Belleville, Ill., and St. Louis, Mo. The plants being located in various places enables the American to execute orders under any conditions.
The company is the exclusive agent for the new Newark Machine Bottle company, Newark's newest industry and one that promises great results. Amber and light green bottles are produced.
A Partial list of officers of the American Bottle company has already been published in the Advocate, but the
complete list follows:
President, M. W. jack.
Vice President and Asst. General Manager, L. S. Stokes.
Secretary and Treasurer, W. J. Crane.
General Superintendent, O. G. King.
Directors. M. W. Mack, E. H. Everett, W. J. Crane, L. S. Stoker, J. C. haring, Walter Reeves, S. M. Hunter, John
O'Brien
E. H. Everett, chairman Executive Committee and General Manager.
Executive Committee, E. H. Everett, M. W. Mack, L. S. Stoehr, W. J. Crane.
The general offices of the company are in the First National bank building at Chicago, but the home office is in
Newark.

The Newark Advocate (Newark, Ohio) September 8, 1905
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Stockholders Held Annual Meeting
Here Saturday--Edw. H. Everett
General Manager.

The stockholders of the American Bottle company held their annual meeting in this city Saturday, and while here were the guests of Mr. E. H. Everett who is general manager and chairman of the executive committee.
This company is composed of the Ohio Bottle company of Newark, Massillon and Wooster, the Streator Bottle and
Glass company, with factories at Streator, Ill., and the A. Busch Glass manufacturing company with factories at
Belleville, Ill., and St. Louis, Mo., has for its officers the following: M. W. Jack, president L. S. Stoehr, vice president and assistant general manager W. J. Crane, secretary and treasurer, and O. G. King, general superintendent. The directors of the company are M. W. Jack, E. H. Everett, W. J. Crane, L. S. Stoehr, J. C. Haring, Walter Reeves, S. M. Hunter and John O'Brien.

The Newark Advocate (Newark, Ohio) November 28, 1905
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SCHMEDTJE, Johannes, secretary and manager Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Co. born Holstein, Germany, Oct. 23, 1850 son of S. and Marie (Dieckmann) Schmedtje educated in gymnasium in Germany married, St. Louis, May 28, 1878, Johanna Busch children, Adolph, Elsa, Gussie, Paula, Clara, Lily, Hilda. Came from Germany to St. Louis, 1870 engaged as clerk in wine house, 1870-75 became identified with Anheuser-Busch Brewing association as general clerk, 1875 and was in freight department for fifteen years when glass works were erected, was put in charge of same by Adolphus Busch in 1891 now vice-president, secretary and manager, Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Co., manufacturers of bottles. Evangelical Lutheran. Independent in Politics. Club: Liederkranz. Favorite recreations: Music and thespian art. Office: Corner of Main and Dorcas Sts. Residence: 2337 S. 13th St.

Leonard, John W. The Book of St. Louisans (St. Louis, The St. Louis Republic, 1906)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

The Adolphus Busch Glass manufacturing Company was purchased from the city of Belleville fifteen years ago by Mr. Busch, who is now the president of the the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company. In this establishment are manufactured beer and soda bottles, and about 615 men are employed. The factory is running for ten months of the
year, and the capacity is 25,000 gross per month.

Wilderman, A. A. History of St. Clair County (Chicago, Munsell Publishing Company, 1907)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

The Busch Glass manufacturing company's plant at St. Louis, which has been closed since June 15, is to start up
on October 1.

The Muskogee Cimeter (Muskogee, Indian Territory) October 2, 1908
_______________________________________________________________________________________

THE AMERICAN BOTTLE COMPANY.

The American Bottle Company, whose great strength lies in its control of the Owens bottle machine, is a $10,000,000 incorporation, now having an annual capacity of three hundred million tattles. Edward H. Everett, whose factory has long been a factor in Newark's prosperity, is general manager of the new corporation and is chairman of the executive committee. The American Bottle Company purchased the factories and good will of the Ohio Bottle Company, with factories located at Newark, Massillon (two) and Wooster, Ohio, the Streator Bottle and
Glass Company, with a factory at Streator, 111., and the A. Busch Glass Manufacturing Company, with factories at
Belleville, Illinois, and St. Louis, Missouri. This vast industry is controlled by Mr. Everett and Mr. Busch, the St. Louis millionaire. General offices are maintained in Chicago, but the chief factory is in Newark, and the enormous natural gas field here, together with the rich sand quarry at Black Hand, sixteen miles away, afforded ample inducement for the selection of this city as the location for the big machine bottle plant recently constructed. The American company controls eighty per cent of the bottle business today, and its trade is growing. Everett has an interest second to none in the Licking-Knox county gas fields, the largest hi Ohio, and he also owns the Black Hand sand quarries.

Brister, E. M. P. Centennial History of the City of Newark and Licking County Ohio Volume I (Chicago, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1909)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Armour & Company have reduced their juvenile employees from 160 to 45.
.
Ko much tor Chicago now we will look to the territory outside of Chicago and Cook county. To give you an illustration of the reduction of child labor in the glass factories in Illinois, I refer to the following:
Illinois Glass Co., Alton, employed 377 children under the age of 16 in 1901, today they employ 73.
Adolphus Busch Glass Co., Belleville, employed 109 in 1901, and now employ 82.
Streator Bottle and Glass Co., have ten children under 16 in their employ now, while in 1901 there were 257.
American Bottle Co., Streator employ two children today, in 1901 there were 15.
The Headly Glass Company of Danville now employ 10, in 1901 they employed 30.

The above statistics are but a few of the many good results brought about through the enforcement of the law. I
1893 the percentage of children employed in Illinois was 8.2 per cent the present percentage has been reduced to
1.3 per cent. We make the statement, and we make it advisedly, that we have the lowest percentage of child labor
of any State in the Union. In making this statement, I include not only factories and workshops, but every other
character of employment.

Grote, Caroline Journal of Proceedings of the Fifty-Sixth Annual Meeting of The Illinois State Teachers'
Association and Sections Held at Springfield, Illinois, December 28-30, 1909
(Springfield, Illinois State Journal Co., 1910)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

BELGIUM BUILDING. This is one of the structures that represented foreign countries at the Fair. Later, this
Belgium Building was purchased and moved to Dorcas Street near the Mississippi River, and used as the main
building for the Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company (no longer in existence).

Thomas, Joan M. Postcard History Series St. Louis 1875-1940 (Chicago, Arcadia Publishing, 2003)
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Se videoen: How Adolphus Busch Became The King Of Beers


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    interessant temka, voksen)



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