Worcester og Norwich - Historie

Worcester og Norwich - Historie


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Al Southwick: Independence Day og Worcesters sted i historien

Den 3. juli 1776 skrev John Adams et brev til sin kone, Abigail, om den betydningsfulde stemme om uafhængighed, som den kontinentale kongres havde taget dagen før.

Anden dag i juli 1776 bliver den mest mindeværdige epoke i Amerikas historie. Jeg er tilbøjelig til at tro, at det vil blive fejret af de efterfølgende generationer som den store jubilæumsfestival. Den burde mindes som udfrielsens dag ved højtidelige handlinger om hengivenhed til Gud den Almægtige. Det burde fejres med Pomp og Parade, med shows, spil, sport, kanoner, klokker, bål og belysning fra den ene ende af dette kontinent til den anden fra denne tid og frem for evigt mere. Du tror måske, at jeg blev transporteret med entusiasme, men det er jeg ikke. Jeg er udmærket klar over slid og blod og skat, at det vil koste os at opretholde denne erklæring og støtte og forsvare disse stater. Alligevel kan jeg gennem Gloom se strålerne af strålende lys og herlighed. Jeg kan se, at slutningen er mere end alle midler værd. Og at Eftertiden vil sejre i den Dage Transaktion. & rdquo

Selvom Adams angav den 2. juli som den afgørende dato, har historikere fastslået, at kongressen faktisk ratificerede dokumentet to dage senere, den 4. juli. Men hans veltalende brev opsummerer bestemt betydningen og importen af ​​uafhængighedsdagen om såvel som alt, hvad der er skrevet siden.

Amerikanerne var hurtige til at forstå, at uafhængighedsdagen faktisk var en meget stor ting. Den 18. juli 1777 offentliggjorde Virginia Gazette en beretning om festlighederne i Philadelphia & ndash & ldquow med demonstration af glæde og festlighed & rdquo, herunder affyring af kanoner og ringning af kirkeklokker og ndash, der kan have været den første fejring af erklæringen på rekord.

Worcester var ikke langt bagud. Dette samfund havde stor interesse for erklæringen. Den første offentlige læsning af det berømte dokument i staten var lige her i Worcester en uge eller deromkring efter den 4. juli 1776, da Isaiah Thomas, Worcester postmester, åbnede en pakke adresseret til Boston og opdagede en kopi af erklæringen. Derefter læste han den op til en forsamling, der var forsamlet foran den første kirke på Fælles, om hvor rådhuset står nu.

Thomas var en ivrig patriot og utrættelig fortaler for uafhængighed for kolonierne. Han var sandsynligvis en af ​​arrangørerne af Worcester & rsquos første fejring af den fjerde den 8. juli 1779. Massachusetts Spy, der ejes og redigeres af Thomas, redegjorde fuldstændigt for anledningen:

& ldquoMorgenen på den dag blev indvarslet af klokkering, affyring af en kanon og fremvisning af det kontinentale flag. Ved 12 -tiden blev 13 kanoner affyret. Om aftenen blev retsbygningen belyst, 13 raketter blev affyret og en fremvisning af andet fyrværkeri, til stor tilfredshed for mange respektable og trofaste venner til den fælles sag for vores nation, som blev samlet ved Tinghuset fra denne og tilstødende byer. Der blev givet gensidige tillykke, og der blev drukket et antal skål, der var passende til lejligheden. & Rdquo

Det er værd at bemærke, at fejringen af ​​amerikansk frihed fandt sted, mens krigen stadig rasede. Britiske styrker var blevet drevet ud af Boston, men briterne holdt New York og kampe fandt sted i Georgien og South Carolina. Lord Cornwallis & rsquo -overgivelse i Yorktown var mere end to år i fremtiden. En fejring af amerikansk uafhængighed i 1779 var en bemærkelsesværdig demonstration af tillid, for ikke at sige chutzpah.

The Spy var jublende: & ldquoDet er med glæde, vi kan informere vores læsere om, at patriotismens ånd nu genopliver. Intet er nu ønsket for at opfylde den politiske frelse i dette land. & Rdquo

I senere år, efter oprettelsen af ​​den føderale regering, blev fjerde juli -festlighederne partipolitiske. Der var føderalistiske fester og republikanske (demokratiske) fester, hver med sine ritualer, der lavede politisk hø på bekostning af den rivaliserende gruppe. Oratører som Daniel Webster forklarede stærkt om nationale spørgsmål, ofte længe og nogle gange en time eller to.

Den fjerde blev en virkelig national helligdag efter borgerkrigen, da det amerikanske folk begyndte at omdefinere Unionen, så snævert reddet fra splittelse. 1872 -fejringen her i Worcester viste den nye ånd i alle sine brændende overdrev. Ved midnat meddelte Telegrammet, og tusindvis af børn og ældre mennesker var ude for at indlede den fjerde med al den støj, de kunne lave. Panikken varede kun en time, og derefter fortsatte låget til dagslys.

& ldquoMorgen bragte mere spænding. Klokken 8 om morgenen affyrede batteri B-enheden en 22-kanons hilsen fra toppen af ​​Bell Hill. Fra da af buldrede byen med en næsten konstant spærring af fyrværkeri og torpedoer. Amtsbyerne blev på samme måde levet op med eksplosioner, ikke alle sammen sikre. & Rdquo

Begivenheder her i Worcester omfattede fem bands, herunder & ldquoStudelfunk Flunkies & rdquo og & ldquo Lowland Cadets. & Rdquo Paraden inkluderede & ldquoLt. Hardtack, Major Sassafras Bones, Surgeon og Capt. Slaymen. & Rdquo Vi kan kun håbe, at de alle var politisk korrekte.

Byens & rsquos festligheder blev koordineret af byskriver Charles Benchley, far til komikeren Robert Benchley og oldefar til Peter Benchley, forfatter af & ldquoJaws. & Rdquo Formentlig havde en god tid af alle.

Denne spalte blev første gang vist i Telegram & Gazette den 30. juni 2016.


Worcester og Norwich - Historie


Den følgende samling (klik her) af billeder repræsenterer kun et lille antal genstande, der er interessante for historikere og arkivarer. Kontakt Linda Davis fra Shrewsbury Historical Society for at få mulighed for at studere hele samlingen på egen hånd.

I 1880 byggede Matthew John Whittall en mølle i Worcester på Southbridge Street til fremstilling af fine tæpper og tæpper. Familien Whittall boede på deres byresidens, indtil de byggede en stor hvid georgisk sommergods i 1912. Til dette hjem solgte Charles A. Kably, en ejendomsmægler i Worcester, 100 hektar jord oven på Meetinghouse Hill i Shrewsbury, som havde bestod af syv ejendomsstykker.

Juniper Hall, som Mr. Whittall kaldte sin Shrewsbury ejendom, blev en
milepæl mange kilometer rundt. Det havde en af ​​de fineste udsigt i Central
Massachusetts på grund af sin placering på det højeste punkt i Shrewsbury.
Dens udsigt omfatter Lake Quinsigamond og strækker sig ud over Worcester til bakkerne i Paxton og Rutland mod nord kan ses Mount Monadnock og Mt. Wachusett.

Alle værelser i det to-etagers hus var store, især dem på
første sal. Receptionen havde et loft, der strakte sig til anden sal med en omgivende altan. Også på første niveau var en butlers pantry, musikrum, spisestue, stue og morgenmadslokale. Der var fire pejse, fire soveværelser og en stor stue på anden sal. Sunporch, der kiggede ud på formelle haver, dækkede næsten hele den ene side af huset.

Havearbejde var en særlig hobby for hr. Og fru whittall. Juniper Hall
blev et af udstillingsstedene i Worcester County, med sit layout af de formelle haver, swimmingpoolen og "plukkeblomster" -haverne. Begrundelsen var berømt og kendt for mange mennesker, fordi offentligheden var velkommen til at besøge og se blomsterne blomstre. Lilac -ugen i Juniper Hall var en af ​​sæsonens store begivenheder for dem, der var interesseret i blomster.

I sommeren 1922 besøgte næstformand Calvin Coolidge Juniper Hall. I 1927 blev dette hvide vartegn indrammet i træer skødet af fru Whittall til Grand Lodge of Masons of Massachusetts. Det var hendes ønske, at huset skulle bruges til lindring af lidelser, til minde om hendes mand, der var død der i 1922, og som havde været en 33. graders frimurer. Strukturen blev kendt for mange i Shrewsbury og området som frimurerhospitalet. Godset blev købt af byen Shrewsbury i 1976, og bygningen blev senere raseret.

Palæet er væk nu, og det samme er minderne om forskellige tider, men landet forbliver, og det er stadig en fortryllende verden. I stedet for formelle haver er der vildmark med en stille stilhed. Juniper Hall er nu et minde, men billedet af vedvarer i sit hul på toppen.

NORCROSS -BRØDRE -"MASTERBYGGERE"

Builders of the Shrewsbury Home of Matthew J. Whittall
Juniper Hall
Prospect Street

James og Orlando Norcross startede Norcross Brothers Construction Company i Worcester, Massachusetts og blev et af de første entreprenørfirmaer i landet. Antallet af bygninger tilskrevet Norcross Construction Company er omfattende. Brødrene arbejdede yderst godt mellem opførelsen af ​​bygningen og forståelsen af ​​arkitektens behov og design. De fik deres titel "Master Builder" på grund af deres intelligens, opfindsomhed, personlighed og sunde fornuft. De arbejdede også for nogle af tidens mest indflydelsesrige arkitekter, nemlig Henry Hobson Richardson, Peabody og Stearns, McKim, Mead & amp White og Shepley, Rutan og Coolidge (efterfølgere af H. H. Richardson). Brødrene indgav mange konstruktionspatenter i deres navn (dvs. betonsøjler, betonplader, skillevægge osv.) De fleste af disse er stadig i brug i byggeverdenen i dag.

Familien Norcross stammer fra staten Maine og flyttede til Salem, Massachusetts omkring 1843. Både James og Orlando blev født i Maine - James Atkinson Norcross blev født i Kennebec, Maine i 1831 og Orlando Whitney Norcross født i Clinton, Maine i 1839. Deres forældre var Jesse Springer Norcross og Margaret Whitney Norcross. Jesse Norcross, en tømrer, der arbejdede inden for alle forskellige aspekter af byggehandelen, flyttede sin forretningsbase fra Maine til Salem, Massachusetts for at etablere et mere lukrativt sted for sit arbejde.

James og Orlando etablerede snart deres egen almindelige entreprenørvirksomhed i Swampscott. De overførte senere deres forretningsgrundlag i 1866 til Worcester, Massachusetts efter at have været forlovet med at bygge Worcester High School (som ikke længere står) og Leicester Congregational Church. Norcross Brothers Construction Company forblev i Worcester resten af ​​sin karriere. Efter en vellykket gennemførelse af deres første kommissioner i Worcester blev Norcross Brothers forbundet i en næsten kontinuerlig og meget rentabel forbindelse med arkitekten på Worcester High School, Henry Hobson Richardson. H.H. Richardson blev en af ​​de mest indflydelsesrige amerikanske arkitekter i slutningen af ​​det 19. århundrede. Efter at have knyttet forbindelse til H. H. Richardson, fortsatte Norcross Brothers Construction Company med at bygge næsten alle Richardsons store kommissioner. Nogle af disse bygninger er:

Trinity Church, Boston, MA
Rhode Island State House
St. John's Episcopal Church, New York
New York Public Library
Bare for at nævne nogle få.

Se Norcross bindemiddel for at se "Deloversigt" over bygninger bygget af Norcross Brothers Construction Company Hilsen af ​​PRESERVATION WORCESTER, Cedar Street, Worcester, MA.
Norcross Brothers Construction Company arbejdede også med renoveringer af Det Hvide Hus, Washington, DC, og tilføjelse/renovering af Vanderbilt Home.

Brødrene Norcross byggede de egne boliger på hjørnerne af Claremont- og Woodland Streets (begge deres hjem huser i øjeblikket faciliteterne på Clark Universitets Center for Teknologi, Miljø og Udvikling). Bortset fra nogle få mindre ændringer, hovedsageligt udvendigt, er de to Norcross -boliger spejlbilleder af hinanden. Orlandos hjem lå på Claremont Street 16 og James 'hjem lå på Claremont Street 18.

James Norcross varetog alle kontoransvar og pligter. Han var en meget konservativ, detaljeret mand, selvuddannet og en strålende tænker. Orlando Norcross besad en stærk ånd, tjente under borgerkrigen og lærte godt tømrer- og byggeindustrien. Brødrene fandt det også til deres fordel at købe og vedligeholde deres egne stenbrud for at producere stenen, der blev brugt til deres bygninger - sandsten, kalksten og marmor.

James trak sig tilbage fra virksomheden i 1897. James havde også bygget den imponerende bolig "Fairlawn" på May Street, Worcester, som han besatte i juli 1895. Orlando fortsatte forretningen alene.

Med disse to utrolige mænds død døde James i 1903 og Orlando døde på vej til arbejde i en alder af 80 i 1920, Norcross Brothers Construction Company skulle lide og til sidst ophøre med at eksistere.

Norcross -brødrene blev kendt for deres kvalitetsmurerarbejde, håndværk, ærlighed, integritet og organisation og yder yderst vigtige bidrag til entreprenørvirksomheden. De gjorde store fremskridt i deres tids arkitektoniske og kommercielle historie, både uafhængigt og gennem deres tilknytning til deres tids store arkitekter. Norcross -brødrene lever videre gennem de enorme fremskridt og innovationer, de har udviklet, og gennem de mange strukturer, der den dag i dag stadig prikker USA.

****************************
HVORFOR ER DETTE OPLYSNINGER
PÅ DETTE Kendte og talentfulde
BRØDRE VIGTIGT.

HVILKEN FORBINDELSE TIL DE HAR MED
SHREWSBURY.

Disse fabelagtige, kreative og enormt succesrige bygherrer byggede hjemmet kendt som Juniper Hall til Mr. Matthew J. Whittall på Prospect Street, her i Shrewsbury. Brødrene, der havde forbindelser til Matthew Whittall, var et sandsynligt førstevalg. (Brødrene havde arbejdet på Whittall Mills og bygget St. Matthew's Episcopal Church i Worcester - Mr. Whittall var chartermedlem og generøs finansmand for kirken). Orlando Norcross blev naturligvis kontaktet af Mr. Whittall for at bygge sit nye hjem på sin 70+ acre placering i Shrewsbury.

Det dejlige og majestætiske hjem blev bygget af Norcross Construction Company for en pris på 80.000 DOLLAR ($ 80.000,00) i 1912. Det tjente som hjemsted for Matthew og Gertrude Whittall i flere år. På femårsdagen for Matthew Whittalls død, gerede Gertrude ejendommen over Grand Lodge of the Masons of Massachusetts til brug som pensionist/ rekonvalesthjem. Ejendommen blev senere kendt i byen som frimurerhjemmet/hospitalet. I 1976 faldt ejendommen under ejendommen af ​​byen Shrewsbury, og i 1979 traf byen beslutningen om at rive dette hjem ned.

SÅ STORT HISTORISK TAB TIL BYEN I SHREWSBURY, NÅR DU TÆNKER PÅ FORBINDELSERNE!

Tak til:
Nancy Johnson - forskningsartikel
Clark University - websted
Bevaring Worcester-uddelinger
Worcester Historical Museum- Robin Christensen - bibliotekar
Paula Rowse Buonomo - forfatter "History of St. Matthew's Church"

MATTHEW J. WHITTALL
TÆPPETØJER
EJER AF WHITTALL MØLLER
WORCESTER
OG JUNIPER HALL
PROSPECT GADE
SHREWSBURY

Matthew J. Whittall var en britisk immigrant, der tjente sin formue på gulvtæppet.

Han blev født i Kidderminster, England, den 10. marts 1843. Efter sin uddannelse flyttede han til en by ved navn Stourport. Der, i en alder af 21, tog Matthew ansvaret for et tæppeværkfirma ejet af Thomas B. Worth. Mr. Worth var en kendt producent af tæpper. I denne stilling lærte Matthew om virksomheden, og han blev hos virksomheden i cirka seks år.

I oktober 1868 giftede Matthew sig med Ellen, yngste datter af afdøde Henry Paget, i Stourport, England.

Mr. Whittall og hans familie kom til USA i 1871, og han tog stilling som forstander ved Compton Carpet Company i Worcester. I 1879 blev Compton Company opløst. Mr. Whittall var derefter fast besluttet på at prøve sig frem til fremstilling. Han forpagtede en bygning i South Worcester (dengang kendt som Wicks Mill) og begyndte at fremstille på egen hånd. Han besøgte sit hjemland i England for at købe de nødvendige maskiner til sit anlæg. Matthew købte maskiner, der ville gøre ham i stand til at fremstille Wilton- og Bruxelles -tæpper. I England købte han tolv væve. Omkring tre år senere, hvor virksomheden blomstrede, købte Mr.Wittall jord og opførte sin første tæppefabrik. I omkring ti år efter sin første bygning fortsatte Matthew med at udvide nye bygninger med jævne mellemrum, indtil hans virksomhed dækkede næsten 200.000 kvadratfod jord. Han til sidst, Edgeworth -mølle til producenten af ​​kamgarn i 1885 og købte også Palmer Carpet Company i 1892. Møllerne i 1910 beskæftigede omkring 1500 faglærte arbejdere, og møllerne kørte omkring 350 tæppe- og tæppevæve. Han var en omsorgsfuld arbejdsgiver og holdt også arrangementer som f.eks. Minstrel -shows og feltdage for medarbejdere. Whittall Mills var en af ​​de største arbejdsgivere i South Worcester og forblev i forretning indtil slutningen af ​​1950'erne. Det blev også en af ​​de største individuelle tæppeproducenter i verden.

Med sin erfaring, praktisk og viden inden for tæppefremstilling udnyttede han enhver ny idé, der kunne bruges i produktionen af ​​nye og ønskelige varer. Kvaliteten af ​​hans tæpper var efterspurgt over hele landet. Han modtog endda en inklusiv ordre om at forsyne regeringsbygningerne med tæpper. Præsident og fru McKinley komplimenterede personligt Matthew for sit valg i tæpper til nogle af deres værelser i Det Hvide Hus. Whittall -møllerne blev en af ​​de største individuelle tæppeproducenter i verden.

Hans møllebygninger i South Worcester huser nu virksomheden Rotmans møbler.

Mr. Whittall var et liberalistisk og samfundsorienteret individ. Han interesserede sig alvorligt for sit samfund. Han var tilknyttet mange organisationer: Board of Trade, Worcester Club, Tatassit Canoe Club, Blackstone Valley Street Railway Co., Manufactures 'Mutual Insurance Company, People's Savings Bank, kurator for Public Library og City Hospital for blot at nævne nogle få. Selvom han aldrig havde offentligt embede, var han også medlem af guvernørrådet, der fungerede under guvernør McCall i 1917/1918 og guvernør Coolidge i 1919/1920.

På dette tidspunkt var Worcester en by i vækst med 25 % af befolkningen i 1855 udenlandske født. Med mange engelske immigranter, mange fra hr. Whittalls hjemby Kidderminster, der arbejdede på Whittall -møllerne, var deres religion og traditioner fra hjemlandet en vigtig del af deres liv. Disse engelske immigranter organiserede deres egne cricket- og fodboldhold og en engelsk social klub.

Deres sogn blev kaldt St. Matthew's Episcopal Church og her tilbad og socialiserede disse mennesker. I foråret 1871 blev O. W. Norcross fra Norcross Brothers Construction Company i Worcester kontraheret til at bygge kapellet. Dette kapel var åbent for gudstjenester på St. Matthew's Day, 21. september 1871. Sognet blev organiseret i 1874 med Matthew J. Whittall som chartermedlem. Med den finansielle gavmildhed og engagement fra Matthew J. Whittall og hans familie kunne kirken rejse sig fra sin ydmyge begyndelse. Opførelsen af ​​en ny St. Matthews begyndte med placeringen af ​​hjørnestenen den 26. maj 1894. Norcross Brothers arbejdede sammen med arkitekten Stephen Earle i opførelsen af ​​denne nye bygning under bygningsudvalgets vågne øjne - et medlem er hr. Matthew J. Whittall. Kirken havde en gæld på næsten $ 30.000,00 skyldig til Norcross Brothers, som Whittall -familien gavmildt overtog. Mr.Whittall blev valgt som kirkens leder. Han blev også udpeget til at nedsætte et begavelsesudvalg for kirken. Medlemmerne af St. Matthew's Parish fortsatte med at have stærke bånd til deres kirke tilbage i Kidderminster, England, St. Mary's Church. Dette var drengenes sogn til Matthew Whittalls familie og sogn til mange af de andre, der fulgte deres arbejdsgiver og ven til Worcester.

På det modsatte hjørne fra St. Matthew's Church (på hjørnet af Southbridge og Cambridge Streets) placerede Matthew Whittall sit Worcester -hjem, Hillside. "Hjemmet har omfattende grunde, anlagt i fremragende smag og udgør et af de hyggeligste og mest attraktive boliger i byen." (Worcester i 1898). Det er blevet sagt, at Mr. Whittall byggede sin statelige Worcester -bolig overfor kirken for at holde et vågent øje med, hvem der mødte op, og hvem der ikke gjorde det til gudstjeneste søndag.

Whittalls første kone, Ellen, døde i november 1895 og efterlod en søn og datter. I 1906 giftede Matthew sig med Gertrude Clarke, fra Omaha, Nebraska. Efter hans andet ægteskab valgte hr. Og fru Whittall at bygge deres hjem i Shrewsbury.

I 1912 blev Norcross Brothers Construction, engageret af Mr. Whittall og Gertrude til at bygge den store hvide georgiske ejendom på den høje bakke i byen Shrewsbury. Flere jordstykker blev købt for at udgøre de cirka 100 hektar til godset.
Ejendommen fik navnet Juniper Hall. Whittall elskede at dele den smukke ejendom og haver. De hilste offentligheden velkommen til at komme og besøge for at se de hundredvis af blomster blomstre. Der var marker med vilde iriser, blåregn,
og haver til at plukke blomster. De var vært for begivenheder som "Lilac Weekend", som var en af ​​sæsonens store begivenheder. Whittalls Juniper Hall var kendt som et af Worcester County's udstillingssteder med sin reflekterende pool og haveindretninger.

Matthew Whittall var en 33. graders frimurer. Da Matthew døde i 1922, dedikerede Gertrude Whittall pergolaen i haverne til at omdøbe den til "The Garden of Sweet Remembrance". Hun fortsatte med at bo på ejendommen, indtil hun i 1927 generøst skød Juniper Hall og al fast ejendom til Grand Lodge of the Masons of Massachusetts for et pensionerings- og rekonvalescenshjem til minde om sin mand.

Matthew J. Whittall døde den 31. oktober 1922. Menigheden i St. Matthew's Church var dybt bedrøvet ved hr. Whittalls død. Han havde tjent kirken og bidraget generøst i næsten halvtreds år.

Mr. Whittall var, selv om den var værdig, tilgængelig. Han var en venlig, generøs og intelligent mand, der var kendt for sin integritet, ærlighed og ivrige sans for humor. Han blev beundret af venner, medarbejdere, medarbejdere og bekendte.

Næste gang kører du vest for Rt. 290 mod Auburn, kig op lige forbi den første Rotmans møbelbygning og se hans navn indgraveret i sten på den næste bygning og blive mindet om en af ​​Worcesters mest fremtrædende og succesrige personer.

Tak til:
Paula Rowse Buonomo
Whittall Masonic Lodge websted
Worcester Historical Museum for at bidrage med information

Fra en scrapbog fundet i Shrewsbury Historical Society -samlingen

AT VEDE JUNIPER HALL DEN 30. MAJ

Grand Lodge of Masons of Massachusetts får nøgler til ejendommen af
Fru M. J. Whittall.

Bemærkelsesværdige øvelser, der skal være kl. 15:30

Juniper Hill (Hall), Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, den storslåede $ 200.000 Whittall -ejendom, der blev skød 29. oktober i tillid til Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Masons, af fru Gertrude (Clarke) Whittall, enke efter Matthew J. Whittall, til minde om hende mand, der skal bruges til lindring af værdige og fattige frimurere, deres enker og pårørende bosiddende i Commonwealth of Massachusetts, vil blive dedikeret til en særlig meddelelse fra Grand Lodge, der afholdes i lokalerne kl. 15:30, Memorial Day , på hvilket tidspunkt nøglerne til godset vil blive overdraget til Master and Wardens of the Grand Lodge.

Det blev specificeret i Trusts skøde, at hvis storlogen bestemmer, at hvis det ikke er tilrådeligt at drive ejendommen som et hospital eller et hjem som ovenfor, så skal ejendommen afsættes til sådanne velgørende formål til fordel for værdige og fattige frimurere, enker og pårørende som min nævnte forvalter (storlogen) skal vælge ".

Mr. Whittall, en 33. graders frimurer, i hvis hukommelse gaven er givet, var en internationalt kendt tæppefabrikant, der i flere år før sin død i 1921 var medlem af bestyrelsen for Grand Lodge og en oprigtig og hengiven frimurer. Han var medlem af Athelslan Lodge, A.F. og A.M., blev oprettet, var chartret medlem af denne Lodge og blev dens første valgte tilbedende mester i 1920 - 1921.

Ejendommen omfatter mellem 85 og 100 hektar jord, smukt forbedret og er en af ​​de smukkeste boligområder i Commonwealth. På denne ejendom står det store georgianske hus, som er et vartegn for miles rundt. Det har en af ​​de fineste udsigter i det centrale Massachusetts.

Beliggende på en høj kreste, den højeste i byen Shrewsbury og over 700 fod over havets overflade, ser den ned på søen Quinsigamond og videre til bakkerne i Paxton og Rutland og mod nord til Mount Monadnock og Mt. W Massachusetts.

Juniper Hall har været et af showstederne i Worcester County lige siden det blev bygget i 1912. Haverne er berømte og kender mange tusinde mennesker, for offentligheden har altid været velkommen, især i perioder, hvor blomsterudstillinger var på højeste. Fru Whittall har udviklet ejendommen til en sjælden kombination af formelle haver og tilpasning af dyrkede planter til det vilde miljø.

Fru Whittall er datter af Henry Taft Clarke, en pioner i Mason i Nebraska, og den første mand, der blev hævet til graden af ​​frimurere i denne stat. Han var en af ​​grundlæggerne af den første loge, der blev konstitueret i Nebraska, og var gennem hele sit liv en af ​​protektorerne for institutionen i den store jurisdiktion.

Ved den kvartalsvise meddelelse af Grand Lodge den 14. december udtalte Grand Frank L. Simpson i tilbuddet om denne gave: "Det er mit håb, at donorens formål kan realiseres, og denne ejendom skal bruges til brug som et hospital at tage sig af den ramte bror, murer, frimurer og deres efterkommere, for hvem der ikke kan findes passende boliger i eksisterende institutioner. taknemmelighed og beundring af broderskabet for den liberalitet og kærlige venlighed, der fremkaldte gaven. " "Jeg anbefaler også, at en kopi af disse beslutninger, der er velegnede til brutto, fremsendes til fru Whittall af myndighederne i Grand Lodge som et vidnesbyrd om, at brødrene i Massachusetts har påskønnet hendes generøsitet og velvillighed.

JUNIPER HALL TIL GODKENDELIG BRUG

Storslået landhjem, der skal bruges til "lindring af lidelse" på en hvilken som helst måde Massachusetts jurisdiktion for broderlig orden ser passende ud - præsenteret som mindesmærke for hendes afdøde mand, der var 33d graders murer, på femårsdagen for hans død
______________

Fru Matthew J. Whittall har skødet til Grand Lodge of Masons of Massachusetts hendes smukke landejendom, Juniper Hall, på toppen af ​​Meeting House -bakken i Shrewsbury. Gaven er til minde om hendes mand, afdøde Matthew John Whittall, der selv var en 33d Mason. Det er lavet omkring femårsdagen for hans død.

Ejendommen vil blive kendt som Juniper Hall Memorial. Dens formål
vil være "lindring af lidelse."

Godset omfatter omkring 100 hektar jord, hvorpå den står
stort georgiansk hus, som er et vartegn mange kilometer rundt. Det
kommanderer en af ​​de fineste visninger i det centrale Massachusetts. Den høje
toppen, højest i byen Shrewsbury, ser ned på søen Quinsigamond og videre til bakkerne i Paxton og Rutland og mod nord til Mount Monadnock og Mount Wachusett og andre fjerne eminenser. Selv om det ikke er langt væk fra landsbyen Shrewsbury og Boston Post -vejen, er afstanden tilstrækkelig til at give stedet en isoleret isolation.

Kan være et hospital
Grand lodge har endnu ikke besluttet, hvad ejendommen præcist skal bruges til
vil blive sat. Sandsynligvis vil det have karakter af et hospital, hvis patienter
vil være Massachusetts medlemmer af ordren. Komiteen for storlogen, ledet af stormester Frank L. Simpson, fra Boston, foretog formel inspektion af stedet tirsdag, og formel accept af fru Whittalls generøse og uventede tilbud er blevet tilbudt hende.

Juniper Hall har været et af udstillingsstedene i Worcester amt lige siden det blev bygget af hr. Og fru Whittall i 1912. Haverne er berømte og kender mange tusinde mennesker, for offentligheden havde altid været velkommen, især i perioder, hvor blomsterudstillinger var på højden. Lilac -ugen i Juniper Hall har været en af ​​sæsonens arrangementer for folk, der er vilde med blomster. Fru Whittall er selv amatørgartner uden nogen dygtighed, og hendes ideer har udviklet ejendommen til en sjælden kombination af formelle haver og tilpasning af dyrkede planer til et vildt miljø. Hendes eng, hvor iris vokser vildt i de oprindelige græsser, har tiltrukket mange interesserede besøgende i blomstringstiden.

Palæet er et meget stort. Jord, der er kontinuerligt dertil, egner sig til opførelse af andre bygninger, da Grand Lodge finder det ønskeligt at tilvejebringe flere overnatningssteder i udførelsen af ​​mindesmærket.

Ejerskabet af ejendommen overgår straks til grand lodge. Det er dog usandsynligt, at den faktiske belægning begynder inden næste forår. I mellemtiden vil der uden tvivl blive lagt mere detaljerede planer om omfanget af de nødhjælpsaktiviteter, der vil blive udført der. Meeting House hill -ejendommen bestod oprindeligt af syv ejendomme, hver med en anden ejer. Disse blev bragt sammen for Mr. Whittall af Charles A. Kableys kontor.

Disse oplysninger fra en scrapbog i Shrewsbury Historical Society's samling
Ingen dato på artiklen - menes at være omkring maj 1927


Byens historie

Norwich blev grundlagt i 1659 af nybyggere fra Saybrook ledet af major John Mason og pastor James Fitch. Jorden blev købt fra den lokale Mohegan -stamme, ledet af deres Sachem, Uncas. Den tidlige bosættelse var omkring Norwichtown Green. Forsyninger blev bragt fra en landing nær bunden af ​​Yantic Falls. I 1684 godkendte nybyggere en ny offentlig landing ved toppen af ​​Themsen, stedet for den nuværende bymidte.

Forbedrede landingsfaciliteter bragte større fartøjer og stimulerede væksten i handelen. Produkter fra de indre gårde og skove i det østlige Connecticut blev udvekslet i Vestindien med sukker, melasse, rom og slaver afrikanere. I midten af ​​1700'erne pralede havnen en velstående kolonial havn kendt som Chelsea Landing.

Revolution

Ved afslutningen af ​​den franske og indiske krig i 1763 resulterede mere restriktive britiske handelspolitikker og frimærksloven fra 1764 i omfattende protester i kolonierne. Et svar var at erstatte importerede varer fra England med lokalt fremstillede. Christopher Leffingwell begyndte på dette tidspunkt at fremstille papir, keramik, chokolade og strømper.

Da modstanden mod britisk styre brød ind i en åben revolution, spillede Norwich -ledere betydelige roller som militære og politiske ledere. Jedidiah Huntington tjente som aide-de-camp for George Washington. Samuel Huntington, en fætter, tjente i den kontinentale kongres og var præsident for dette organ, da konføderationens artikler blev vedtaget i 1781. En tidlig helt i revolutionen, Benedict Arnold, født i Norwich, er blevet berygtet som en forræder.

En by i vækst

The city of Norwich was incorporated in 1784, one of the first five Connecticut cities. The abundant waterpower available on the Yantic and Shetucket rivers provided the motive power for textile factories, which by the mid-1800s dominated the local economy.

Steamboats brought passengers and freights to Norwich wharves. Goods and passengers were transferred to the Norwich & Worcester railroad, constructed from 1835 to 1840. Raw cotton and wool were shipped to textile mills throughout the region, and finished cloth shipped back. Norwich became the commercial, transportation, and manufacturing hub of the region.

Norwich was rocked by the controversy over slavery prior to the Civil War. David Ruggles, a key figure in the Underground Railroad, was raised in Norwich. Sarah Harris and other members of her family sought educational opportunities and civil rights for blacks. Norwich Free Academy, founded in 1854, continues to provide secondary education for Norwich and surrounding towns. NFA had non-discriminatory practices from its beginnings.

By the Civil War, the Republicans dominated city politics and controlled the state government. Governor William A. Buckingham and Mayor James Lloyd Greene supported the war effort. As in the Revolution, Norwich supplied men, firearms, and ships. The city welcomed the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. After Lincoln&rsquos assassination, US Senator Lafayette S. Foster served as acting Vice-President. Frances M. Caulkins completed her revised History of Norwich in 1866.

A Thriving City

Rapid industrial growth transformed Norwich into a modern urban center by the early 20th century. Electric trolleys were introduced in 1892. Mohegan Park, started in 1907 with private donations and purchase, is centered around Spaulding Pond. Another important greenspace, Lowthorpe Meadows, was set aside by private philanthropists in the same year.

Immigrants from French Canada, southern and eastern Europe, the Cape Verde islands, and other areas, as well as internal migrants from the American South, reshaped the city in the late 1800s and the 1900s. Their skills and labor went to support the city&rsquos mills and businesses. Settling in various sections of town, the newcomers introduced new churches, cultural organizations, and self-help associations, greatly enriching the diversity of the city. Recent newcomers to Norwich have included Haitians, Spanish-speakers from Central and South America, and Asians, predominantly Chinese.

Civic groups had an important role in city improvements during the 20th century. A progressive city, Norwich moved to take over public utilities in 1904. City government was reorganized as a council/manager form in 1951. In 2001, a charter revision restored the office of Mayor, but retained the city manager.

Today&rsquos Norwich is a thriving city with a stable population, full range of municipal services, a modern industrial park and minor league ball team, its own publicly-owned electric, gas and water utility, and a positive outlook for residential and business growth.


Worcester and Norwich - History

Detail for a Map exhibiting the route of the Norwich & Worcester rail-road surveyed by James P. Kirkwood, James Laurie (Civil Engineers). ca. 1835 - Connecticut Historical Society and Connecticut History Illustrated

An ad for the Norwich and Worcester Rail-Road for contractors from the September 17, 1836, edition of the Hartford Times

On August 28, 1837, the directors of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad celebrated the completion of the Taft Tunnel in Lisbon. The first railroad tunnel in Connecticut and among the earliest tunnels built in America it remains one of the oldest railroad tunnels still in active use. Dr. Nott, of Franklin, delivered the prayer at the dedication and Asa Child, Esq., general agent of the company, delivered the address to the assembled crowd.

At this time, Railroad transportation was relatively new to Connecticut, which chartered its first railroads in 1832. Built to connect the waters of Long Island Sound with the manufacturing heart of Massachusetts, the Norwich to Worcester line covered the route in the shortest possible distance. In a study conducted by Roger Huntington prior to its construction, Huntington estimated that businesses transported 15,000 tons of goods along this route annually (excluding the towns of Norwich and Worcester). The goods included paper and iron as well as products from the 27 woolen and 75 cotton mills along the route.

James Laurie, co-founder of the American Society of Civil Engineers and chief engineer for the railroad, oversaw the project. Due to the drastic change in elevation near Quinnebaug Falls it became necessary to tunnel through the hill. Builders initially found much of the rock to be unstable and a passage from the summit to the foundation had to be opened for 75 feet before the men could even begin to tunnel through solid rock. The result was a slightly curved, narrow tunnel measuring 300 feet long by 23 feet wide and 18 feet high. The tunnel is currently part of the Providence and Worcester Railroad.

Taftville Tunnel. Photograph by an unknown photographer, ca. 1900 – Connecticut Historical Society


A HISTORY OF NORWICH

Norwich started as a small Anglo-Saxon settlement north of the River Wensum in Norfolk. In time it grew into a town, perhaps because of its situation on a river. (In those days it was much cheaper and easier to transport goods for sale by water than by land). It became known as North Wic (wic is an old word for port and Norwich was an inland port). The name Norwich first appears on a coin minted in the early 10th century.

By then Norwich was a large and important town (although it would appear no more than a village to us). It had a mint and would have had a weekly market. Norwich was probably also a burgh or fortified settlement. The town would have been surrounded by a ditch and earth embankment with a wooden palisade on top.

In the 10th century, Norwich grew rapidly. As the town grew the settlement spread to the south bank of the river. Gradually the settlement at Norwich shifted from north to south of the River Wensum.

Then in 1004 the Danes sacked and burned Norwich. (That was easy since the buildings were of wood with thatched roofs). However, Norwich was soon rebuilt and flourished once again. The Danes left many place names in this part of England. The street name ‘gate’, as in Pottergate, is derived from the Danish word gata meaning street. Potter gata was the street where potters lived and worked. The meaning of Fishergate is obvious. The street name Tombland is derived from a Danish word meaning empty space. Fingelgate comes from a Danish word meaning bend or elbow.

NORWICH IN THE MIDDLE AGES

By the time of the Domesday Book, in 1086, Norwich was one of the largest towns in England with a population of about 6,000. Although that seems tiny to us settlements were very small in those days, a typical village only had 100 to 150 inhabitants. By the 14th century, the population of Norwich had probably grown to about 10,000.

In Norwich, as in most Medieval towns, the main industry was the manufacture of wool. First, it was woven then it was fulled. That means the wool was cleaned and thickened by being pounded in a mixture of water and clay known as fuller’s earth. The wool was pounded by wooden hammers worked by watermills. Afterward, it was dyed.

Another important industry in Medieval Norwich was leatherworking. In Norwich, there were tanners, saddlers, and shoemakers. there were also many goldsmiths in Norwich. There were also the same craftsmen found in any medieval town such as blacksmiths, carpenters, brewers, bakers, potters, tailors, and thatchers.

In Norwich there were weekly markets. There was also an annual fair. In the Middle Ages fairs were like markets but they were held only once a year for a period of a few days. People would come from all over eastern England and London to sell at a Norwich fair. The main export from Norwich was wool. Imports included woad for dyeing, timber, and pitch, wine, millstones, and fish from Great Yarmouth.

In 1094 the local bishop moved his seat from Thetford to Norwich. In 1096 he began building a new cathedral. Stone was brought from Caen in France and a little canal was dug to transport it from the river to the site of the new cathedral. However, the cathedral was not consecrated until 1268. The Normans also built a wooden castle in Norwich. In the early 12th century it was rebuilt in stone.

In 1194 Norwich was given a charter (a document granting the townspeople certain rights). From then on they elected a Reeve, an official who governed the town day to day. In 1265 there was a civil war between the king and some barons. In 1266 some rebel barons sacked Norwich but the town soon recovered.

In the early 13th century the friars arrived in England. Friars were like monks but instead of withdrawing from the world, they went out to preach and help the poor. There were 4 groups of friars in Norwich. There were Dominican friars (called blackfriars because of their black costumes). There were also Franciscan or grey friars and Carmelite or white friars. There were also Augustinian friars. There are still streets in Norwich called Blackfriars, Greyfriars, and Whitefriars. Different orders of friars once lived there.

In the Middle Ages, the church ran the only hospitals. The Hospital of St Paul was founded in the early 12th century. Great Hospital was founded in 1249. There were also 6 leper hostels around the town. (This dreadful disease declined in the 15th century and had disappeared by the 16th). In 1272 the monks of the Cathedral Priory provoked a riot when they attempted to charge tolls on the annual fair at Tombland. The rioters burned part of the Priory.

Cow Tower was built in 1278 for collecting tolls. It was rebuilt in 1399. Stone walls were built around Norwich from 1297 to 1334. The Bridewell was built around 1370. From 1583 to 1828 it was used as a prison.

During the Peasants Revolt in 1381, the rebels captured Norwich. They did not hold Norwich for long, however. The bishop mustered an army and the rebels retreated to North Walsham where they were easily defeated. Norwich school was founded in 1316. Also in 1316 Ethelbert Gate, Cathedral Close was built.

In 1404 Norwich was given a new charter and it gained a mayor. The Guildhall was built in 1407. Then in 1420, Sir Thomas Erpingham built Erpingham Gate in Cathedral Close. St Peter Mancroft was built in 1455 and in 1463 a spire was added to Norwich Cathedral. Strangers Hall was built in the mid-15th century. Meanwhile, Julian of Norwich lived in Norwich in the 14th and early 15th century.

NORWICH IN THE 16th CENTURY

In 1500 the population of Norwich was around 10,000 and it was one of the largest towns in England. In 1505 Norwich suffered a severe fire. Two more followed in 1507. (Fire was a constant hazard because most of the buildings were of wood with thatched roofs). The Guildhall was built in 1513. The friaries were closed by Henry VIII in 1539 but some of the hospitals were taken over by the corporation.

In 1549 came Ketts rebellion. Enraged by their treatment by landowners some of the farmers of Norfolk rose in rebellion. They took control of Norwich and camped on Mousehold Heath. The first attempt to crush the rebellion failed.

A small force led by the Marquis of Northampton entered Norwich and fought in the streets but was then forced to withdraw. The government then sent a much larger force under the Earl of Warwick. This time the rebels were driven out of Norwich. They withdrew to Mousehold Heath then to Dussindale. The earl’s men attacked and routed them. Afterward, about 300 rebels were hanged including Kett.

Then in 1579, there was an outbreak of plague, which may have killed 1/3 of the population of the town. However, Norwich soon recovered. In Tudor England, there were always plenty of poor people in the countryside willing to come to the town to look for work.

After 1565 many weavers came to Norwich fleeing religious persecution in what is now Holland and Belgium. They brought their canaries with them. Soon the native people of Norwich adopted rearing canaries as a hobby. By the 18th century Norwich was famous for its canaries and today Norwich football team is nicknamed the Canaries. The weavers may have boosted the population of the town to about 16,000 by the 1580s. In the early 16th century, Norwich seems to have suffered an economic decline but it began to prosper again in the late 16th century.

NORWICH IN THE 17th CENTURY

The population of Norwich rose rapidly in the 17th century and reached about 25,000 in 1700. This was despite outbreaks of plague. It struck twice, in 1625 and again in 1665 but each time the town recovered. Meanwhile, a children’s ‘hospital’ (really an orphanage) was founded in 1621.

During the civil war 1642-46 most of the people of Norwich supported parliament. There was no actual fighting at Norwich during the civil war. However, there was a riot in 1648. The mayor was a royalist and parliament ordered his dismissal. But the mayor was popular and his supporters rioted. They attacked the homes of well-known puritans and then entered the Committee House where gunpowder was stored. Somehow the gunpowder exploded killing some 40 people. Afterward, 8 of the rioters were hanged.

A ‘hospital’ or almshouse for old people was built in Norwich in 1688.

NORWICH IN THE 18th CENTURY

In the 18th century wool manufacture was still the main industry in Norwich. Wool was exported to North America. There were many imports into Norwich including tea, silk, and porcelain from the Far East. Tobacco from North America. Sugar, rum, and mahogany from the West Indies. Fish was brought by ship from Great Yarmouth and coal from Newcastle. Leatherworking was still an important industry in Georgian Norwich. Brewing flourished in this century. In the late 18th century some silk was woven in Norwich.

Meanwhile Bethel Hospital for the mentally ill was built in 1714.

For the well-off life grew more comfortable during the 18th century. The first newspaper in Norwich began publication in 1721. An Assembly House was built in Theatre Street in 1754 where people could play cards and attend balls. The first bank was founded in 1756.

In the years 1791-1801 the gates in Norwich town walls were demolished to ease the flow of traffic. Meanwhile, in 1780 Elizabeth Fry, the prison reformer, was born in Gurney Court in Magdalene Street and in 1797 Nelson gave the city of Norwich the sword owned by a Spanish admiral, which was captured after the battle of Cape St Vincent.

NORWICH IN THE 19th CENTURY

In 1801 Norwich had a population of 36,000. It was still one of the largest towns in Britain but it soon fell behind as towns in the North and the Midlands mushroomed. Nevertheless, Norwich did grow during the 19th century and by 1900 it had a population of over 100,000. In the early and mid 19th century skilled workers built houses at Heigham and around Vauxhall Street. The middle classes built houses along Thorpe Road.

However, like all 19th-century towns, Norwich was dirty, overcrowded, and unsanitary. There were epidemics of smallpox, typhoid, cholera, and diphtheria during the century. In 1819 there were 530 deaths from smallpox.

Nevertheless, there were many improvements to Norwich in the 19th century. In 1804 a dispensary was opened where the poor could obtain free medicines. In 1806 an act of parliament formed a body of men called the Improvement Commissioners who had powers to pave, clean, and light the streets. The first police force in Norwich was formed in 1836.

As early as the 18th century there was a piped water supply in Norwich – for those who could afford it but the water was impure. In the 1850s the council built a pure water supply. In the 1870s they built a network of sewers. After 1877 they began slum clearance.

Life in 19th century Norwich gradually improved. The first public library opened in 1857. Chapelfields was opened as a public park in 1852. The Roman Catholic Cathedral in Norwich was built in 1884. Mousehold Heath opened as a park in 1886. The Castle Museum opened in 1894. The Royal Arcade was built in 1899. Meanwhile in 1844 Norwich was connected to Yarmouth by train. From 1849 it was connected to London.

During the 19th century wool weaving and silk weaving in Norwich rapidly declined. However, leatherworking boomed. So did brewing. Norwich became famous for boot and shoemaking. In the late 19th century an engineering industry grew up in Norwich and flourished. There was also a mustard-making industry.

NORWICH IN THE 20th CENTURY

From 1900 to 1935 electric trams ran in Norwich but they were replaced by buses. The first cinema in Norwich opened in 1912. James Stuart Garden opened in 1922. Bridewell Museum opened in 1925. A war memorial was erected in 1927. Woodrow Pilling Park opened in 1929. Waterloo Park opened in 1933. The City Hall was built in 1938.

The council built houses on the outskirts of Norwich in the 1920s and 1930s. Many more were built after 1945. They were needed partly because 3,000 houses had been damaged or destroyed by the German bombing.

A new central library was built in 1962 but it burned down in 1994. Norwich University was founded in 1963. The Arts Centre opened in 1977. Anglia Square Shopping Centre opened in 1980. Castle Mall opened in 1993. Riverside Leisure Complex opened in 1999. In the late 20th century the main industries in Norwich were printing, electronics, engineering, and finance. Tourism also became an important industry.

Norwich Cathedral

NORWICH IN THE 21st CENTURY

In the 21st century, Norwich is still a thriving city. In 2002 a building called The Forum was opened. It includes the Millennium Library. Then in 2005 Chapelfield Shopping Centre opened. In 2020 the population of Norwich was 148,000.


20th-Century

In the first decade of the 20 th century, the population of Salem, Mass., was more than one-fifth Quebecois and their children. In South Salem’s Little Canada, children attended French schools like Sainte-Chrétienne. They built French churches like Église Sainte-Anne and they started French businesses like St. Pierre’s Garage, Ouellette Construction and Soucy Insurance.

St. Ann’s Church complex, Woonsocket.

Franco-Americans were almost all Roman Catholic, and strict ones at that. They believed that abandoning the French language meant abandoning their religion, and they clung to their language and customs longer than many other immigrant communities. They called it la survivance. Battles often erupted between French parishes and the Irish-dominated parishes over their desire to hire French-speaking priests.


History of Norwich

Norwich is an ancient city that lies at the heart of rural East Anglia. It was the Anglo Saxons who first made their homes beside the river Wensum, and it was from one of these settlements, which bore the name Northwic, that the city got its name. The settlement grew and grew and merged with others to become the largest walled town in medieval England. In 1066, at the time of the Norman Conquest, Norwich was one of the most important boroughs in the kingdom. Trade by river and sea was increasing and light industry had begun to develop. The market on Tombland was thriving with local produce, pottery, ironwork, wooden and leather goods, as well as furs from Scandinavia and Russia, woollen cloth from Flanders and herring from the North Sea.

Norwich Castle was built by the Norman Conquerors as a show of strength. A steep-sided artificial hill was constructed in 1067 which was 40 feet (13 metres) above ground level. Originally the castle was made of wood and was replaced 60 years later by a stone keep, which can still be seen today.

The keep was roughly 70 feet (20 metres) high, with walls about 100 feet (30 metres) long, and was virtually square in shape. It was built of local flint and mortar, and faced with stone.

In 1096 work started on the Cathedral. Churches and Saxon houses were cleared so that a canal could be dug from the River Wensum to the site of the Cathedral. This meant that stone from Caen in Normandy could be brought directly to the building site by water, thus making lighter work. By 1119 the transepts, presbytery and four bays of the nave had been built, but the Cathedral was not finally consecrated until 1278.

By Medieval times Norwich had within its walls 56 churches. Many of these were built as a reflection of wealth of local landowners. In 1194 Norwich became a city when Richard I granted a charter giving rights of self government. 1349 was when The Black Death hit Norwich and it is thought that as many as two-fifths of the population of roughly 6,000 people may have died. With a high proportion of clergy dying, four parish churches fell into disuse because of the lack of priests and parishioners. However, by 1377, Norwich’s population had risen back to 6,000. Many of the new residents were peasants who had left their unproductive homeland to seek work in the city’s growing textile trade. At the beginning of the 14th century, weaving was the most important trade in the city and, within a hundred years, Norwich was considered the main centre of worsted manufacture in the country. This industry continued for the next five hundred years until machinery was introduced during the Industrial Revolution thus making skilled craftsmen redundant.

The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 meant life at the end of the 14th century was far from peaceful. Armies of rebels set fire to the houses of lawyers and other wealthy folk and it was the bishop, who, with his own army, eventually managed to restore order to the city.

During the early 16th century there were several fires which swept through Norwich, destroying whole streets of thatched and Tudor timbered houses. It is thought that 718 houses were burnt to the ground over a four day period in March 1507, and in June of the same year an additional 360 homes were lost. This was almost half of the city’s housing, which led to a decision that all new buildings should have tiled roofs.

In 1549 an army of 20,000 rebels, led by Wymondham farmer Robert Kett, took over control of the city causing a lot of destruction, they were protesting about an increase in rent and the enclosure of local common land for grazing by rich sheep farmers. They made their camp on Mousehold Heath and it took two royal armies six weeks to defeat them. Kett and forty eight other rebels were hanged at Norwich Castle.

In 1565 there was great concern about the decline in the worsted industry. The city authorities arranged for thirty households of religious refugees to come over from the Netherlands to teach the local craftsmen how to produce different types of cloth. Not only did the ‘Strangers’ (as they were known) bring over their knowledge of weaving, they also brought with them a love of gardens and canary breeding.

By the end of the 16th century the weaving trade was busy and cloth merchants and grocers were making their fortunes. The local gentry could now buy medicines, imported food and fine clothes without travelling to London. Norwich seemed to be prospering again however, according to the mayor, in 1570 about a fifth of the population were living on charity and the city was rife with tramps.

Norwich experienced its last epidemic of Bubonic Plague during 1665-6 this resulted in most of the wealthy citizens leaving Norwich. Unemployment became a serious problem, followed by a severe food shortage in 1666, which was only averted by huge catches of herring which were brought ashore at Great Yarmouth. Agricultural wages in East Anglia were very poor and country life became increasingly difficult this prompted people to move from the country into the city in search of work. The textile industry was recovering from a slump as new interest in fashion meant there were employment opportunities for many. Norwich was now exporting its cloth to Europe, North America, India and China.

By the early 1670’s Norwich had a population of around 21,000 and was probably the largest provincial town in England. Improvements to the main roads and the development of horse-drawn coaches meant that travelling between towns became easier in the 17th and 18th centuries. The gentry of Norfolk and Suffolk would come into Norwich to make purchases and to take part in social events such as card playing and dancing. During the 18th century Norwich’s leather industry steadily grew, making such items as buckets, harnesses, hosepipes, boots and shoes. Brewing also became increasingly important and Norfolk malting barley was considered the best in the country. By 1801 the city had six large breweries, supplying local needs, as well as sending beer to London for sale.

Improvements in local agriculture meant an increased production and a new cattle market grew up around the Castle. Norwich’s first bank was opened in 1756 and it was in 1775 that a local family, John and Henry Gurney, started a bank which still survives today as part of Barclays. It was in 1792 that Thomas Bignold, a wine merchant and banker, started the insurance business which was to become Norwich Union. The prosperity of the 18th century meant there was money to invest in building work. Subsequently the Assembly House was built in 1754, and the old Norfolk and Norwich hospital was constructed in 1771-2.

During the 19th century the population of Norwich increased from 37,256 in 1811 to 80,368 in 1871. The city began to expand beyond its walls and the living conditions were somewhat unhealthy with no supply of clean water there were epidemics of cholera and various other deadly diseases. This improved when a new waterworks was built which provided filtered water, and generally people’s awareness of public health increased.

Norwich originally had three railway stations, but only Thorpe Station, which was opened in 1844, remains today. The meadow land around Thorpe Station soon became crowded with houses and hotels for the railway workers, and factories were built beside the river to take advantage of water and rail transportation. Professional people began building their homes outside the city walls, as the city centre was becoming overcrowded. The area between Ber Street and King Street was particularly over-populated with slum housing. In 1892 work began on the church of St John the Baptist, which was later to become the Roman Catholic Cathedral.

It was in the 19th century that Jeremiah Colman built a new mustard mill at Carrow, A.J Caley began making chocolates at Chapelfield and John Jarrold opened his printing works at Whitefriars.

During the 20th century the city’s population increased from 121,490 in 1911 to an estimated 180,000 in 1980. Re-housing schemes and slum clearance began in the late 19th century and continued for many years, with council houses providing improved living conditions for thousands of people. In 1900 an extensive tram system meant that people could travel cheaply throughout the city, and it ran for thirty years. By the 1920’s the Guildhall, which had been the civic headquarters for over five hundred years, was now too small. The decision was made to build a new city hall, which was opened by George VI in October 1938.

Norwich was bombed more than forty times during the Second World War, and was selected for two of the Baedeker raids in which historic buildings were targeted in excess of 30,000 houses were damaged, 100 factories, as well as seven medieval churches and numerous shops, were destroyed. Rebuilding started in the 1950’s and the central library was built in 1963, with the University of East Anglia (UEA) taking its first students in that same year.

In the early 1990’s the site of the old cattle market was excavated to house the Castle Mall shopping centre, an innovative scheme, built on several levels, using the medieval street patterns and linking the east and west sides of the city centre.


History of Railroad Line Serving Webster, Massachusetts

Oct 02, 2018 #1 2018-10-02T13:18

I am trying to gather some historical information on a passenger railway that operated in the late 1960s. It ran periodically from New London, CT to Webster, Massachusetts, including several other stops along the route and terminated, I believe, in Worcester, Massachusetts. I am specifically interested learning:

- Years during which it operated
- Passenger stations along the line
- Reasons why the service terminated

Finding photos of the trains that ran on that line, or any pictures of the Webster, MA station during that era would be fantastic.

Thanks in advance to anyone who might be able to help!

Oct 03, 2018 #2 2018-10-04T00:25

I don't know if this issue answers all your questions, but it appears Shoreliner Volume 21 Issue 2 included an extensive article on Webster, plus companion articles:

  • "Webster, on the Norwich & Worcester Branch" -- The history of the rail lines serving Webster, MA. 24 pages with photos (some color including the front cover and centerspread) and maps.
  • "The Southern New England -- 'The Old Grand Trunk'" -- The story of the Grand Trunk Railway's planned line between it's subsidiary Central Vermont line in Palmer, MA, and waterfront facilities in Providence, RI. Includes construction photos in Webster and Southbridge. 6 pages with photos and maps.
  • "Trolley Stop: The Street Railways of Webster" -- The history of trolley service in and about Webster, MA. 4 pages with photos and map.

Oct 03, 2018 #3 2018-10-04T02:13

Thanks Bill!
Sounds like that's exactly what I need. I'll order it right away!

Oct 04, 2018 #4 2018-10-04T09:50

Oct 04, 2018 #5 2018-10-04T13:20

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Oct 04, 2018 #6 2018-10-04T13:52

Go to the NHRHTA home page http://www.nhrhta.org/ on the right is a column of links , scroll down and click on MAP OF THE NEW HAVEN RR/NHRHTA PUBLICATIONS BY LINE then on the new page click on the Map Link A larger map of the New Haven Railroad, from a 1929 train schedule, can also be viewed. This will bring up a map that allows you click a location that will list all NHRHTA publications and Shoreliners that have material on that location,in your case click on Webster..There is a long list of links you can look through on the page that the map link is on. There is also a link to the page that list all currently available back issues it is the publications sale page.
The Budd car service started around 1952 for a year or 2 the service was 3 round trips Worcester New London . The service was cut back to 2 round trips for the remainder of the time until Amtrak which did not chose to keep this service running.
I watched and heard these trains many time in the 1950s and 1960s as it operated through Oxford Mass many times as a young railfan. I also remember my parents taking the Budd Car to New York and back to Webster about 1960.
Ron High

If you find an issue you want is not available post a request on the forum you may find someone that can help you.


Stagecoach Inn

The Stagecoach Inn, a fitting name for one of Vermont’s old stagecoach stops.

At the start of the 19th century, ancient footpaths connected Burlington and Montpelier in Vermont. In 1805, the 36-mile Winooski Turnpike along the Winooski River was chartered to connect the two major towns.

The old Winooski Turnpike turned into U.S. Route 2, the main highway connecting the White Mountains to the Adirondacks. It cuts through Waterbury, the town where Ben and Jerry’s make their ice cream.

In 1826 either a Mr. Parmalee or a lawyer named Dan Carpenter had a structure built on the corner of the Winooski Turnpike and what is now Route 100. The building served as a tavern and inn for travelers and as a meeting place for locals.

By the mid-1800s, a farming family named the Henrys owned the inn. Their eccentric daughter Nettie married an Ohio rubber baron, Albert Spencer. Nettie smoked cigarettes, chewed tobacco and wore a celluloid eyeshade. She expanded and improved the old family house in Queen Anne Style.

Nettie Spencer died in 1947. The home was later run as a rooming house and fell into disrepair. A young couple from Boston bought the property in 1985 and rebuilt the house. Today it’s the Old Stagecoach Inn, a historic bed-and-breakfast in the center of downtown Waterbury.

For more information about the Stagecoach Inn click here.

This story about New England stagecoach stops was updated in 2020. If you enjoyed this story, you may also want to read about six Revolutionary taverns here.


Se videoen: Worcester Walk: City Centre4K


Kommentarer:

  1. Henry

    Jeg undskylder, men efter min mening tager du fejl. Skriv til mig i PM, vi vil diskutere.

  2. Brarisar

    Dette generer mig ikke.

  3. Kazijas

    Ret! Var enige!

  4. Bao

    Det er bemærkelsesværdigt, det er meget værdifuld information



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